Volume 2 Number 2: October, 2007

Title: Indian and Central Asian Trade Routes and Communication (From Ancient to the Pre Colonial Period)

Description: 

Author-Name:  B.K. Tyagi, Assistant Professor, Govt. JNS PG College, Shujalpur (M.P.) 
Author-Email:  bh.tyagi@gmail.com 

Abstract:  The intensive trade relations between the Far-East and the West and beyond up to the eastern provinces
of the Roman Empire, via the overland trade route known as the ‘Silk Road’, the economy of Central Asia
linked up with India. The Central Asian traders did not confine their trading activities to the East and
West only. They conducted trade with their Indian counterparts via the routes that branched off towards
the main Silk Route towards India. As such the development of this overland trade gave an impetus to the
process of urbanization as numerous towns skirting the trade routes developed into main trading centres
dealing with internal as well as international trade.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Tyagi, B.K.. Indian and Central Asian Trade Routes and Communication (From Ancient to the Pre Colonial Period). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-5-9
Paper Code : JCT-A07-BKT-1
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Involvement Measurement Models-A Retro Analysis (Implications to Academia and Industry)

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Author 1-Name:  J.R. Issac Balasingh, Lecturer, Karunya School of Management, Karunya University, Coimbatore.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:  D. Israel, Assistant Professor, XLRI, Jamshedpur. 
Author 2-Email:  disrael@xlri.ac.in
Author 3-Name:  J.Clement Sudhahar, Assistant Professor, Karunya School of Management, Karunya University, Coimbatore. 
Author 3-Email:  clement@karunya.edu
Author 4-Name:  J. Japhynth, Lecturer, Karunya School of Management, Karunya University, Coimbatore. 
Author 4-Email:  

Abstract:  Involvement has been studied as a social, phychological, and marketing variable for over 30 years. This
variable has been found to be an internal constraint, which requires commitment, on concern by an
individual and which can be defined in terms of direction (e.g., oriented towards a product or service) and
level of involvement has been accepted as being oriented toward decision making, advertising, and
products. This article endeavors to examine the framework and related issues of different involvement
instruments developed over time and reexamine the literature in respect of involvement applicable to
various industries and presents comprehensive tables indicating the critical dimensions been used in
involvement instruments and comceptualized in different global contexts. Also unravels the invaluable
contributions made to the involvement literature in the 21st century and clearly outlines the implications
of these standardized models to academia and industry.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Balasingh, J.R. Issac and Israel, D. and Sudhahar, J.Clement and Japhynth, J.. Involvement Measurement Models-A Retro Analysis (Implications to Academia and Industry) . Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-10-17
Paper Code : JCT-A07-JRIB-DI-JCS-JJ-2
DOI : 
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Title: Urbanization and Poverty in Manipur (Applying the Concept of PURA)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. N. Tejmani Singh, Reader, Department of Commerce, Manipur University, Chanchipur 
Author 1-Email:  tejnqngmai@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Th. Jitendra Singh, Research Scholar 
Author 2-Email:  tejnqngmai@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  Population of a country is its most important asset. Hence, the present study attempts to highlight
the relationship between urbanization and poverty. The study is based on secondary data which
have been compiled personally from economic survey statistical year book of Manipur, Primary
census abstract and other related research articles published in different journal of national and
international. Urbanization in Manipur is very slow which might be slower in occupational shift
and it will help to increase number of poor persons. In the year 1973 - 74, number of poor persons
were 5.86 lacks which rose to 7.19 lacks in 1999-2000. Poverty is closely linked with unemployment
and underemployment. Urbanization could hardly absorb a little more than the natural increase in
urban population. As a result, a serious dent in terms of the shift of population from rural to urban
areas could not be made. To tackle this problem India president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has proposed
the concept of “PURA” (providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) in the vision - 2020 project
initiated by him.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Singh, N. Tejmani and Singh, Jitendra. Urbanization and Poverty in Manipur (Applying the Concept of PURA) . Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-18-24
Paper Code : JCT-A07-NTS-JS-3
DOI : 
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Title: Dematerialization of Securities (A Sign of Prosperity of Capital Market)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Amit Kansal, Head (Management), IIMT Professional College, Meerut. 
Author-Email:  amit_mrt1@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  A significance development of the 20th century particularly in its later part is expansion of financial market
especially capital market world over which mostly was driven by globalization, technology, innovations
and increasing trade volume. India has not been an exception with probably largest number of listed
companies with a very large investor population and ever increasing volumes of trades. The increase in
trade volumes lead to exponential rise in the back office operations thus limiting the growth potential of
the broking members. The inconvenience faced by investors in settlement of trade also limits the opportunity
for such investors, especially in participating in auction trading. The physical form of holding and trading
in securities also acted a bottleneck for community in capital market operations. Thus the system of
security transaction is not as investor-friendly as it ought to be. In this scenario dematerialized trading
under depository system is certainly a welcome move.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Kansal, Amit. Dematerialization of Securities (A Sign of Prosperity of Capital Market). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-25-28
Paper Code : JCT-A07-AK-4
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Managerial Role in International Marketing Strategies

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Ajay Jain, Lecturer, SRM-IMT, Modinagar. 
Autor-Email:

Abstract:  The marketer has to know that each and every country is having various marketing environment or social
cultural political and even the legal. Comparatively it has to be so very clear that the international
marketer is bound to hold on the recognization that every marketing environment differs from place to
place as well as nation to nation than that of the same country state. It is also evident from the study the
global business transactions have to be sound planned and objectives oriented in nature.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Jain, Ajay. Managerial Role in International Marketing Strategies. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-29-31
Paper Code : JCT-A07-AJ-5
DOI : 
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Title: Managing Marketing-Finance Interface (The Need of Today)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Raghavendra Dwivedi, Assistant Professor, I.T.S., Mohan Nagar, Ghaziabad (U.P)
Author-Email:  ragh_dwivedi@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Now a day’s wave of marketing is in full swing everywhere in corporate world. Marketing functions have
become pivot of the business world by replacing the financial functions, which were in focus and crucial
few decades ago. Even today finance functions are important but not as important as the Marketing
functions. Friction between the marketing and finance functions would be detrimental to the smooth
development and functioning of any business organization. Finance objectives like as value maximization
to shareholders is integral parts of any new strategy adopted by the organization e.g. expansion or
diversification. But this objective seems to have been lost amidst the flurry of marketing activities focusing
on market share. Conscious efforts must be taken to avoid the missing core objective and for sales growth.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Dwivedi, Raghavendra. Managing Marketing-Finance Interface (The Need of Today). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-32-34
Paper Code : JCT-A07-RJ-6
DOI : 
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Title: Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Income (Case Study of Selected Large & Medium Scale Industries)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Khalid Anwar, Lecturer, Department of Economics, J. V. Jain (P.G.) College, Saharanpur (U.P.) 
Author-Email:  vardah.ilma@gmail.com

Abstract:  It may be said that while the basic cause of migration is low levels of income and lack of job opportunities
at the native place, the actual degree of migration is positively related to the expected earnings at the
place of migration. The economic compulsion of the work force forces them to migrate outside their
villages. Thus viewing the distribution pattern of resources such as land and income among the households
in various industries and the villages around the industries one finds that inequality in the income
opportunity is a basic cause and effect which influences the migration from one place to another.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Anwar, Khalid. Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Income (Case Study of Selected Large & Medium Scale Industries). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-35-42
Paper Code : JCT-A07-KA-7
DOI : 
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Title: Role of Outsourcing Strategy in a Competitive Dynamic Environment in India

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Anish Kumar
Author-Workplace-Name:  Lecturer, TPST College, Muradnagar, U.P. 

Abstract:  Today there are temporary services for every kind of job including that of CEO. The trend of outsourcing
began in 1980s. Britain does not consider outsourcing a threat, nor it is surprised that lot of outsourcing
services are being routed in India. The developed countries are increasingly outsourcing the manufacturing
aspects to the developing countries.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Kumar, Anish. Role of Outsourcing Strategy in a Competitive Dynamic Environment in India). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-43-45
Paper Code : JCT-A07-AK-8
DOI : 
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Title: Banking Transformation Through Information Technology in India

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. R. C. Lal, Principal, M. M. (P.G.) College, Modinagar
Author 1-Email:
Author 2-Name:  
Amardeep, Research Scholar
Author 2-Email:

Abstract:  The main challenges ahead in the new millennium in banking and financial sector contain changing
economic and banking environment, global competition, capital structure, transparency in reporting
accounts, employee productivity, risk management, market discipline, sound human resource management,
training and development etc.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Lal, R. C. and Amardeep. Banking Transformation Through Information Technology in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-46-48
Paper Code : JCT-A07-RCL-A-9
DOI : 
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Title: In the context of knowledge and education, human resource is an investment in the human capital promoting

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Smt. Preeti Rani, Department of Commerce, Govt. (P.G.) College, New Theri, Garhwal, Uttarkhand 
Author 1-Email:  mayank_bandhu@yahoo.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Mayank Aggarwal, Department of Commerce, Govt. (P.G.) College, Badaun, Uttar Pradesh
Author 2-Email:  mayank_bandhu@yahoo.com

Abstract:  social and economic development and building its capabilities through various streams of higher education.
Higher Education has been producing thousands of Arts, Commerce and Science degree holders including
medical doctors, agricultural experts and technologists every year without having any consideration
whether there are sufficient employment opportunities for them in the country. According to Economics
Survey 2003-04, “There has been impressive growth in the area of university and higher education”. Now
accreditation of all universities and colleges has been made mandatory. In the present study we shall focus
on the productivity of human resource in Government aided educational institutions in the context of
examination results.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Rani, Preeti and Aggarwal, Mayank. In the context of knowledge and education, human resource is an investment in the human capital promoting. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-49-53
Paper Code : JCT-A07-PR-MA-10
DOI : 
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Title: Productivity of Human Resource in Higher Education

Description: 

Author-Name:  Prof. N. A. Khan, Professor in Management, Advance Institute of Management, Ghaziabad
Author-Email:  dr.nakhan@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  In the context of knowledge and education, human resource is an investment in the human capital promoting
social and economic development and building its capabilities through various streams of higher education.
Higher Education has been producing thousands of Arts, Commerce and Science degree holders including
medical doctors, agricultural experts and technologists every year without having any consideration
whether there are sufficient employment opportunities for them in the country. According to Economics
Survey 2003-04, “There has been impressive growth in the area of university and higher education”. Now
accreditation of all universities and colleges has been made mandatory. In the present study we shall focus
on the productivity of human resource in Government aided educational institutions in the context of
examination results.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Khan, N. A.. Productivity of Human Resource in Higher Education. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-54-62
Paper Code : JCT-A07-PR-NAK-11
DOI : 
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Title: Relevance of Value Education Through Content Areas (The Mula Mantra for Success)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Suman Sharma, Lecturer, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, S.D. (PG) College, Ghaziabad
Author-Email:

Abstract:  Today, value education has become an integral part of our basic education. Each one of us must identify
the values we want to live by. Values help us not only in self-evaluation, but in self-drive too. Value
education is a systematic attempt towards human learning. All learning is subjective & self related.
Knowledge can never be learned. Knowledge is the fruit of experience & experience is the sensation of the
individual. Individual experience is an internal happening & is the function of awareness. And one of the
process of knowing ourselves, of raising our awareness, is to be able to identify and clarity our values.
Education in values is essential in helping each one of us directly encounter the values that we hold,
understand them completely, so that we may order our relationships to the environment that lies outside
us.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Sharma, Suman. Relevance of Value Education Through Content Areas (The Mula Mantra for Success). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-63-66
Paper Code : JCT-A07-SS-12
DOI : 
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Title: MIS— A Thriving Technology Towards Advancement of Organizational Efficiency.

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Shwetabh Mittal, Reader, Commerce & Business Administration, M. M. (P.G.) College, Modinagar 
Author-Email:  mittal_shwetabh@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  Information is a corporate resource, as important as the capital, labour, know-how etc. & is being used for
decision making. Its quality, therefore, required to be very high. Low quality information would adversely
effect the organizational performance as it affects decision – making. The quality of information is the
result of the quality of the input data, processing design, system design, system & procedures, which
generate such a data & the management of the data processing function.With the growth of organizations
functionally and geographically, they are increasingly depending on organized information systems for
management planning & control. Information system in an organization is like the nervous system in the
human body that integrates the various components of the organization into a single whole. During the
last two to three decades, information systems have undergone rapid developments.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Mittal, Shwetabh. MIS— A Thriving Technology Towards Advancement of Organizational Efficiency. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-67-77
Paper Code : JCT-A07-MS-13
DOI : 
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Title: E-Marketing - A Strategic Tool for Marketing in the 21st Century

Description: 

Author-Name:  Arti Singhal, Research Scholar 
Author-Email:  

Abstract: E-marketing is a relations management tool. It is a powerful tool for acquiring new customers. It is a
global electronic super highway of computer networks that is accessible to people worldwide. The emarketing
is a reflection of those activities which transforms the consumer’s unpleasant and painful
experiences into pleasant and happy moments as it does not include the place or time based boundaries
marketing strategy provides the sound frame work for the marketer to vary the marketing mix to develop
the relationships and increasing customer life time value.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Singhal, Arti. E-Marketing - A Strategic Tool for Marketing in the 21st Century. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-78-81

Paper Code : JCT-A07-AS-14
DOI : 
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Title: India is the Fastest Growing Wealth Creator in The World

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Hari Om Agarwal, Research Scholar 
Author 1-Email:
Author 2-Name:
 Vikas Sharma, Research Scholar 
Author 2-Email:

Abstract: A Ferrari Spin across Italy? A party in your private yacht? Or, the show stealer in that Swarovskistudded 
tie? The super-rich Indian is spoilt for choice, India has now emerged as the fastest growing wealth
creator in the world and as per the Forbes Annual List of world’s wealthiest people, India has the most
billionaires of any Asian country. Some of its attractive offerings include stay at Necker Island and Ferrari
rides in Italy in four spanking models, “The profile of Indians has changed dramatically only because of
globalisation and liberalization.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Agarwal, Hari Om and Sharma, Vikas. India is the Fastest Growing Wealth Creator in The World. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-82-83
Paper Code : JCT-A07-HOA-VS-15
DOI : 
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Title: Prospects of India’s Foreign Trade with China

Description: 

Author-Name:  Deepa Gupta, Research Scholar & Part Time Lecturer, Gauri Shankar Girls P.G. College, Bulandshahar 
Author-Email:  dr.deepa121@gmail.com

Abstract:  The Herculean task of economic reconstruction and industrialization beckoned the dawn of India’s
independence in 1947. The goals of achieving an all round economic self-sufficiency transforming the
backward agrarian Indian economy into an industrial nation and ensuring the millions a better quality
of life. This warranted colossal amount of resources quite apart from building the requisite infrastructure.
India always had a surplus with the whole world including Europe, which was settled by the inflow of
gold into India. But there was a steep decline in trade in the subsequent years since 1800 BC when the
Aryans were ravishing most of Asia. In a variety of industries, cheap imports from China are killing local
manufacturers. It needs probe as to how much profit is due to China’s competitiveness and how much due
to dumping. With the advent of globalization, liberalisation, and reduction in trade import and export
barriers the world has today become a tiny village. There are vase opportunities for increasing the
contents of our export basket to China.Quantum of Export and Import with China is very low as compared
other developed countries or the world. The composition of exports and imports with China has changed
since 1991. The reduction in custom tariffs has positively contributed to trade with China. Terms of trade
for India still remain unfavourable.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Gupta, Deepa. Prospects of India’s Foreign Trade with China. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2007; 2: 2;Pp.-84-86
Paper Code : JCT-A07-DG-16
DOI : 
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