Volume 3 Number 1: April, 2008

Title: Tax Corruption and Parallel Economy (The Social Irresponsibility of Tax Avoidance Practice)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Madhulika, Lecturer in Commerce, School of Management Studies, IGNOU, New Delhi.
Author-Email:  mkaushik@ignou.ac.in

Abstract:  Indian economy is undergoing a sea change. Most of the economic models have tilted towards markets. This
phase of globalisation has not only prompted change in the way of doing business but also touched significantly
upon the everyday life of common man, his needs, and aspirations. The Social Irresponsibility of Tax Avoidance
Practice is perhaps the most fundamental way in which private and corporate citizens engage with broader
society. It is therefore curious that tax minimization through elaborate and frequently aggressive tax avoidance
strategies are is regarded as one of the prime duties that directors are required to perform on behalf of their
shareholders. It is even more curious that the debate about corporate responsibility which has touched on
virtually every other area of corporate engagement with broader society has scarcely begun to question
companies in the area where their corporate citizenship is most tangible and most important – the payment
of tax. The free market tax competition model assumes that all tax-paying citizens and businesses are perfectly
mobile and therefore able to migrate between different jurisdictions according to preference. Ironically the
majority of tax havens have adopted elaborate defence strategies to prevent such migratory flows, but the
otherworldliness of the perfect mobility assumption has not deterred these arguments in defence of the
‘discipline’ imposed by tax heavens.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Madhulika. Tax Corruption and Parallel Economy (The Social Irresponsibility of Tax Avoidance Practice). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-5-9.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-M-1
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Indian Banking Industry : Agenda for Future Analysis of Pre and Post e-Banking Period

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Author-Name:  Dr. R.K. Uppal, Reader, Dept. of Economics, DAV College, Malout, Punjab. 
Author-Email:  rkuppal_mlt@yahoo.com

Abstract:  The productivity and profitability is an vital criterion to evaluate the overall efficiency of a bank group. The
present paper, on the basis of secondary data examines the comparative trends in employee productivity,
Operational productivity & Profitability behaviour of five major bank groups in pre- and post- ebanking
period & on the basis of results, highlights a new agenda for Indian banks which has a paramount significance
in the new wave of IT & Global changes. The excellent mapping for the banks is a need of the hour. The paper
concludes that average productivity & profitability is the highest in case of New Private Sector Banks and
Foreign Banks in post- ebanking period. During this period, PSBs has made tremendous and remarkable
improvement in many parameters of productivity. But still they are lagging behind in performance when we
compare them with Foreign Banks and New Private Sector Banks. The paper offers some measures for IBI,
particularly, for PSBs to improve their performance and suggests a new agenda for future.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Uppal, R.K.. Indian Banking Industry : Agenda for Future Analysis of Pre and Post e-Banking Period. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-10-18.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-RKU-2
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Role of Economic Reform in the Growth of Indian Economy

Description: 

Author-Name:  Reenu, Research Scholar, Department of Economics, R.G. College, Meerut.
Author-Email:  professorumeshkumar@gmail.com

Abstract:  This article is based on the growth of Indian economy after economic reforms. Economic reforms in India
were set in motion, though on a modest scale, when controls on industries were reduced by the 1985 industrial
policy. The economic reforms programme got a big boost when the Government announced a new industrial
policy in the Indian Parliament on July 24, 1991. Since then, it is liberalisation, privatisation and
globalisation all the way and the process is underway. In the new liberalised industrial and trade environment,
the Government is progressively assuming the role of a promoter, facilitator and catalytic agent instead of a
regulator and controller of economic activities.The Indian economy has responded well to the economic
reforms initiated since 1991. The Approach Paper on the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) released by the
Government in November 2006 has indicated 7.2 per cent growth rate during the Tenth Five Year Plan
(2002-07). Though this is below the target of 8 per cent, it is the highest growth rate achieved in any Plan.
The growth rate for the Eleventh Plan has been fixed at 9 per cent. In short, the Indian economy is in a much
stronger position than it was a few years ago. The economy, therefore, has shown that it is capable of
achieving high growth rates in response to the implementation of appropriate economic reform policies.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Reenu. Role of Economic Reform in the Growth of Indian Economy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-19-22.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-R-3
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Educational Gender Disparity in Rajastan (An Analytical Study on Women Education)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. K.D. Gaur, Administrative Officer, Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi.
Author 1-Email:  kusum2105@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Kusum Sidhana, Research Scholar, Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
Author 2-Email:  kusum2105@gmail.com

Abstract:  This paper attempts to analyze gender disparity in the field of education in Rajasthan. After many years of
independence, It is observed that women are still lagging behind to men in sphere of education. The main
reason is the social customs and traditions affect the women education in Rajasthan. This study is based on
census 2001 and data is analyzed by ranking and coeffieient of variations. This study concluded that variations
have been observed in male and female literacy rate in various districts of Rajasthan. It is further observed
that along with gender disparity, the regional disparity is also observed in Rajasthan with respect to women
education. In terms of education, rural women are far behing to urban women in Rajasthan.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Gaur, K.D. and Sidhana, Kusum. Educational Gender Disparity in Rajastan (An Analytical Study on Women Education). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-23-29.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-KDG-KS-4
DOI : 
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Title: Motivation : The Right Step to Success (Simply Knowing It)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Gajendra Kumar, Faculty in KIIT, Meerut.
Author-Email:  dr.gajendra21@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Motivation is the driving force that impels people to action. Motivation brings the immense confidence that
is the basis of success. The motivated and inspired people gain much success and name in life. Motivation
lays foundation to achievement and the best utilization of capabilities in sum up it is the secret of success and
inspiration for every achievement. It is the effort to bring success.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Kumar, Gajendra. Motivation : The Right Step to Success (Simply Knowing It). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-30-31.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-GK-5
DOI : 
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Title: India’s Reatail Sector : Perspective and Prospects (Organised and Unorganised Status)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. S. K. Sharma, Reader, Faculty of Commerce, HNB Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal (Uttarkhand)
Author-Email:  drsksharma.in@gmail.com

Abstract:  Retail is India’s largest industry accounting for over 10 percent of GDP and around 8 percent employment.
Rural retail market is expected to grow by 29% to Rs.1,80,000 crore by 2010. Retailing consists of all
activities involved in selling of goods and services to consumers for their personal, family or household use.
The retail sector in India is highly fragmented with organized retail contributing to only 2 percent of total
retail sales. Today in India we see a high rise in the purchasing power and growth of ‘middle class’ which is
real consumer. The opportunities in retail industry in India will increase since Indian retailing is on the
threshold of a major change. Large scale organized players are fast making in roads replacing traditional
stores with modern store formats. This paper analyzes the present status of Indian retail sector in the organized
as well as unorganized sectors and highlights demand drivers of retailing in India as well as the opportunities
for global players. The study gives some suggestions to drive economic growth and to consolidate the gains.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Sharma, S. K.. India’s Reatail Sector : Perspective and Prospects (Organised and Unorganised Status). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-32-37.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-SKS-6
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-1.pdf
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Title: Passenger Management and Travel Behaviour Along MRTS Corridor

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  M. Muthukannan, Senior Lecture, Department of Civil Engineering, Kalasilingam University, Chennai.
Author 1-Email: civilkannan@yahoo.com 
Author 2-Name:  A.M. Thirumurthy, Professor and Head, Department of Transportation Engineering, Anna University, Chennai.
Author 1-Email: civilkannan@yahoo.com 

Abstract:  The rapid growth of urban population presents many changes in the travel pattern such as congestion and
delay. The present transport system does not match with growing population as it was planned for the
population a decade before and not revised for the latest input The person who is away from the transit stop
i.e. even 0.5km away will not use the Public Transport and starts to use the own vehicle and it causes more
congestion on road. A dedicated, convenient, fast, reliable, comfortable MRTS system exist, in the area the
people along the corridor do not use the system. In this work an attempt is made to find out who, when, why
and how the people along the MRTS corridor travel. This study also tries to investigate the travel characters
of people along corridor. The possible management measures are suggested for the effective function of all
modes and to reduce in congestion, delay and pollution in the city.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Muthukannan, M. and Thirumurthy, A.M.. Passenger Management and Travel Behaviour Along MRTS Corridor. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-32-37.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-MM-AMT-7
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-1.pdf
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Title: The Role of Ombudsman Scheme in Redressal of Customer Grievances

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Arvind Kumar Yadav, Faculty in MBA, Institute of Management Education, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad.
Author-Email:  arvind3510@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  The word ombudsman originated in Sweden country in 18th century and it means a representative who
protects the rights of another. According to Webster’s dictionary ‘ombudsman’ as a public official appointed
to investigate citizen’s complaints against government agencies or officials that may be infringe on the rights
of indivuals.Simply stated, ombudsman is an officer appointed by the legislature to handle complaints
against the administrative action.The dispute resolution and justice dispensing system by Ombudsman ensures
speed, economy, convenience and simplicity of procedures and maintenance of cordial relations between the
parties. The system motivates and empowers customers to resolve their disputes without the help of lawyers.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Yadav, Arvind Kumar. The Role of Ombudsman Scheme in Redressal of Customer Grievances. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-43-46.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-AKY-8
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-1.pdf
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Title: Indian Rural Marketing (Determining the Performance)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Rajaram N. Wakehaure, Lecturer and HOD, P.G. Dept. of Commerce, Arts, Science and Commerce College, Rohate, Ahmednagar, Maharastra.
Author-Email:  rajaramwakehaure@gmail.com

Abstract:  An Attempt is made to study the different areas of marketing and also to determined to the performance of
Indian Rural Marketing. The study best on the data pertained to 1995-96 to 2006-07. In general out of 10
years under consideration only last 5 years under consideration only last 5 years successfully years.
This paper has discovered that the rural marketing strategy has to be different from urban market. A uniform
marketing stategy for the total Indian Market is difficult as well as unprofitable. Market strategy as indicated
above can light on some fruitful areas to be concentrated upon the create demands.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Wakehaure, Rajaram N.. Indian Rural Marketing (Determining the Performance). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-47-53.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-RNW-9
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Surviving the Patent Regime (The Effect on Pharma Industry)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. M.K. Gupta, Lecturer, PG Department of Commerce, Government College, Faridabad
Author 1-Email:  mkgupta1965@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Mehak, Lecturer in Finance, D.A.V. Institute of Management, Faridabad
Author 2-Email:  mehaksag@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  Even after the completion of one and a half year of Patent (Amendments) Act, 2005, there has been no effect
on the pharmaceutical industry in India, as was being expected. The passage of the Act was supposed to have
lead to a rise in the prices of drugs in the country. This was due to the fact that once the Indian companies
stopped manufacturing patented drug molecules; there would be shortage of drugs/ substitutes of drugs
available in the market. Patent holding firms will have a monopoly in the market and would charge prices of
drugs according to their own considerations. However, prices of most of the medicines continue to remain
the same. Even the availability of the medicines has not been affected by the enactment of the law. The paper
below analyses the situation that prevails in the Indian pharmaceutical industry after the implementation of
the Patent (Amendments) Act, 2005.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Gupta, M.K. and Mehak. Surviving the Patent Regime (The Effect on Pharma Industry). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-54-59.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-MKG-M-10
DOI : 
Web Address :
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Title: Prices in India : Prices in India : An Analysis (Globalisation and Free Trade Impact)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Khalid Anwar, Lecturer, Department of Economics, J.V. Jain (PG) College, Saharanpur, UP
Author 1-Email:  vardah.ilma@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Jaydeep Bhattacharya, Senior Lecturer, Department of Commerce, Gurucharan College, Silchar, Assam.
Author 2-Email:  amjmb@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Globalization, it is often argued, would - by promoting free trade among nations and lifting all barriers to the
entry of goods, services, technology and investing - create competitive conditions within an economy which
on the one hand would force producers to strive for operational efficiency and, on the other hand would
benefit the consumers through lower prices of product and improved quality. When India has completed
sixteen years of its journey through the reform process, a question naturally arises; to what extent the above
expectation of Indian consumers regarding prices has actually been fulfilled? To know this, the present paper
proposes to examine the prices trends - both wholesale and consumers prices - in the post 1991 period and
compares the same with the pre-reform trends. The analysis reveals that globalization polices by and large
have failed to fulfil the expectation of the Indian consumers.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Anwar, Khalid and Bhattacharya, Jaydeep. Prices in India : Prices in India : An Analysis (Globalisation and Free Trade Impact). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-60-63.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-KA-JB-11
DOI : 
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Title: Software Export Marketing : Problems and Prospects (Suggesting Suitable Strategy)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Ashutosh Nigam, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Vaish College of Engineering, Rohtak, Haryana.
Author-Email:  drashutoshnigam@gmail.com

Abstract:  Significant market competition exists in the world software market for Indian software exporting firms. To
make their presence felt in international market the Indian Software exporting firms have to develop suitable
software export marketing strategy by focusing its core competency areas and developing the practices of
international standards. The marketing strategy for software products is especially relevant where normal
selling fails to deliver the required results and to make made in India label a symbol of software quality,
competitive price, reliability and service to the customers.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Nigam, Ashutosh. Software Export Marketing : Problems and Prospects (Suggesting Suitable Strategy). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-64-70.
Paper Code : JCT-A08-AN-12
DOI : 
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Title: Current Position of India’s Foreign Trade with China (The Changes Taking Place)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Mani Kansal, Lecturer, RGEC, IIMS, Meerut 
Author-Email: 

Abstract:  We analyze causality relationships between industry and foreign trade in two major areas of the world
economy: India, China for the period 2002-07, and found that the effect of imports is usually positive and
significant to favour industrial and non-industrial development, from a mixed approach to economic growth
which has into account demand and supply sides. The goals of achieving an all round economics selfsufficiency
transforming the back word agrarian Indian economy into an industrial nation and ensuring the
millions a better quality of life. The pressure on Indian manufacturers to become more efficient and on the
Indian government to accelerate the elimination of India’s disadvantage in infrastructure. There are vase
opportunities for increasing the contents of our expert basket to china. Quantum of export and import with
china has changed since 1991.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Kansal, Mani. Current Position of India’s Foreign Trade with China (The Changes Taking Place). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-71-74
Paper Code : JCT-A08-MK-13
DOI : 
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Title: Initial Public Offering : Issues and Procedures (Helping to Increase Capital Structure)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. R.K. Singhal, Reader, Department of Commerce, D.N. College, Meerut
Author 1-Email: 
Author 2-Name:
 Rahul Agarwal, Research Scholar
Author 2-Email:

Abstract:  It is the initial public offer made by company to increase its capital structure. Companies provide opportunity
to public to invest their money in their company. Companies effort to provide maximum profit to the public
and keep their faith in the companies .The name and image play a vital roll in this sector Public prefer
investing their money in reputed companies. Public invested about 6761 million in various IPO offered by
various companies during the last three months .Near about 20 companies are going to offer their IPOs. The
Indian economy is growing by leaps and bounds. you are a part of this phenomenal growth. The First Step
initiative teaches you all the know-how about applying for the right IPOs. What’s more, it does so in an easy
paperless manner.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Singhal, R.K. and Agarwal, Rahul. Initial Public Offering : Issues and Procedures (Helping to Increase Capital Structure). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-75-77
Paper Code : JCT-A08-RKS-RA-14
DOI : 
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Title: Realities and Specialties of Special Economic Zones

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Shely Gupta, Research Scholar, Meerut College, Meerut
Author 1-Email:  drshelygupta@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Prateek Gupta, Lecturer, Department of Commerce, Mody Institute of Technology and Science, Lakshmangarh, Rajasthan
Author 2-Email:  drshelygupta@gmail.com

Abstract:  India has shown an increasing trend in foreign trade since the last five decades as per the plan framed by the
Government of India. India achieved a major milestone in her journey towards globalization when the
Government decided to establish specially delineated duty free enclaves, appropriately named as Special
Economic Zones (SEZs). SEZs are effectively contributing in generation of employment, export promotion,
inflow of foreign capital and many more areas. Moreover, the Government is providing a number of incentives
and various schemes have been launched to promote SEZs. The Government has decided to setup SEZs in
almost every part of the country and to reinforce this decision, it has intended to establish more than 111 SEZs
in the near future. A stable and hassle-free environment is essential to carry out exports and this, in turn,
would require raising the level of production, reduction in duties and taxes and other forms of financial
support. Keeping all these points in view, the Government of India designed a framework to setup SEZs. These
Zones are involved specially in production of quality export-oriented goods and services at low costs. In this
paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the basis which makes these Zones different and special.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Gupta, Shely and Gupta, Prateek. Realities and Specialties of Special Economic Zones. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-78-83
Paper Code : JCT-A08-SG-PG-15
DOI : 
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Title: Capacitated Stochastic Fractional Transshipment Problem

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Shakeel Javaid, Dept. of Statistics and Operation Research, Aligarh. 
Author 1-Email:  shakeel.jd@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. S.N. Gupta, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
Author 2-Email:  shakeel.jd@gmail.com

Abstract:  The present paper analyses a transshipment type fractional programming under stochastic demand. The
objective is to maximize the expected profitability of the total transshipment schedule, the net expected
profitability being defined as the total expected revenue minus the loss in transshipment. The stochastic
transshipment problem is reduced to an equivalent deterministic transportation problem for which an algorithm
is developed and numerically illustrated
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Javaid, Shakeel and Gupta, S.N.. Realities and Specialties of Special Economic Zones. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-84-93
Paper Code : JCT-A08-SJ-SNG-16
DOI : 
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Title: Managing Stakeholders : A Case study on Small Scale Industries

Description: 

Author-Name:  Ruchi Tyagi, Research Scholar 
Author-Email:

Abstract:  All businesses operate within a complex system of interests and influences, those people and groups that may
affect the company and, in turn, be affected by the company’s actions and decisions are its stakeholders and
managing the same is stakeholder management, further the stakeholder management is emerging as an
important theme in small scale sector, which is a vital constituent of India’s industrial sector contributing
significantly to the countries GDP and exports earnings besides providing the employment opportunities. It
has been estimated that an investment of 1 million rupees in fixed assets in the SSI sector produces 4.62
million rupees worth of goods or services with tremendous value addition. The number of small-scale units
has substantially increased from an estimated 0.87 million in 1980-81 to over 3 million in 2000.The direct
exports from the SSI sector account for nearly 35% of the total exports. Besides direct exports, it is estimated
that small-scale industrial units contribute around 15% to exports indirectly. The non-traditional products
account for more than 95% of SSI exports. The product groups where the SSI sector dominates in exports are
sports goods, readymade garments, woolen garments & knitwear, jewelry etc.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Tyagi, Ruchi. Managing Stakeholders : A Case study on Small Scale Industries. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-94-98
Paper Code : JCT-A08-RT-17
DOI : 
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Title: FDI and Indian Stock Market : An Outlook Ahead

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. E.N. Singh, Lecturer in Commerce, D.M. College of Commerce, Imphal 
Author 1-Email:  enix1969@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Prof. G.P. Prasain
Author 2-Email:  gpprasain@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  This paper provides a comprehensive review of the issues relating to FDI and Indian stock markets in the
globalized era. It then tries to analyze the major policy issues arising out of the various concerns. Finally, it
puts forward some policy recommendations for attracting FDI in India.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Singh, E.N. and Prasain, G.P.. FDI and Indian Stock Market : An Outlook Ahead. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-99-102
Paper Code : JCT-A08-ENS-GPP-18
DOI : 
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Title: Review of Budget 2008-2009

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Umesh Kumar, Coordinator MBA, Forte Institute of Technology, Meerut  
Author-Email:  professorumeshkumar@gmail.com

Abstract:    The Gross Domestic Product increased by 7.5 per cent, 9.4 per cent and 9.6 percent in first
three years, of the UPA Government resulting in an unprecedented average growth rate of 8.8
per cent. The drivers of growth continue to be ‘services’ and ‘manufacturing’ which are estimated
to grow at 10.7 per cent and 9.4 percent respectively.Growth rate in agriculture for 2007-08 is
estimated at 2.6 percent.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Kumar, Umesh. Review of Budget 2008-2009. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2008; 3: 1;Pp.-103-106
Paper Code : JCT-A08-UK-19
DOI : 
Web Address :
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