Volume 3 Number 2: October, 2008

Title: An Analysis of NPA in Indian Commercial Banks (What ails Non Performing Assets)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. A.R. Krishna, Reader in Commerce, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, Chhatisgarh.
Author-Email:  arkrishna.ggv@gmail.com

Abstract:  NPA is non-performing assets, which are not producing any new income. Indian banking industry has undergone
several changes during the liberalization process. However, one nagging problem affecting the baking sector
has been the high level of non- performing assets. High non-performing assets affect the profitability, productivity,
capital adequacy and competitiveness of banks. Management of NPAs , therefore, assumes significance in
management of banks. Regulators and policy makers for banks have been taking measures to bring down the
level of NPA in Indian commercial banks. This paper analyses the trend of NPAs in the last five years and
suggest measures to reduce them. The reforms measures and policy initiatives have resulted in reducing the
level of NPAs in Indian commercial banks. Categorywise analysis shows that the public sector banks have hier
levls of NPAs in comparison to private and foreign banks. Sectorwise analysis reveals that priority sector
lending accountsf or major portion of NPAs in public sector banks, while non-priority sector lending account
for major portion NPAs in private and foreign banks. Agriculture sector also is an important contributor to the
NPAs in commercial banks.The paper is divided into three sections. Section I describes the concept, causes
and consequences of NPA. Section II Analyses the trend of non-performing assets in Indian commercial banks.
Section III contains conclusive remarks.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation: Krishna, A.R.. An Analysis of NPA in Indian Commercial Banks (What ails Non Performing Assets). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-5-10.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-ARK-10
DOI : 
Web Address :
 http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-1.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Detariffing-Whether Profitable to Insurer or Insured

Description: 

Author-Name:  Mrs. Sangeetha Natarajan, Lecturer in Business Management, Tiruppur Kumaran College for Women, Tirupur.
Author-Email:  sangeethanatarajan.tup@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. S. Poornima, Senior Lecturer in Business Management, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Peelamedu, Coimbatore.
Author-Email:  sangeethanatarajan.tup@gmail.com

Abstract:  In this era of Globalization and Liberalization along with the paradigmatic shift in the development strategy,
the Insurance sector which remained relatively untouched by the reforms also become the part of it and is not
exempted. In this way IRDA has requested the insurance companies to initiate steps in order to ensure the
transition from tariff regime to detariff regime. The present paper is an attempt to introspect the problems and
prospects of both Insurer and Insured with respect to Detariffing .The Perception of 120 Agents and 200
Customers were found using self structured questionnaire and was analyzed using tools like Simple Percentage.
Central Tendency ( Mean, Weighted mean ,Standard deviation ) and was ranked in their order of preference.
Based on findings a snapshot of SWOT Analysis was drawn showing the leveraging strength, opportunities to
be exploited, rectifying weaknesses and threats to be overcome , to standout as a winner in the liberalized
economy.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Natarajan, Sangeetha and Poornima, S.. Detariffing-Whether Profitable to Insurer or Insured. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-11-17.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-SN-SP-2
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-2.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Promotion of Brand in Rural Market

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Ashish Bagla, Senior Lecturer, S.D. College of Engineering and Technology, Muzaffarnagar.
Author 2-Email: vikky_g98@rediffmail.com 

Author 2-Name:  Vivek Gupta, Senior Lecturer, S.D. College of Engineering and Technology, Muzaffarnagar.
Author 2-Email:  vikky_g98@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  Population of a country is its most important asset. Hence, the present study attempts to highlight
the relationship between urbanization and poverty. The study is based on secondary data which
have been compiled personally from economic survey statistical year book of Manipur, Primary
census abstract and other related research articles published in different journal of national and
international. Urbanization in Manipur is very slow which might be slower in occupational shift
and it will help to increase number of poor persons. In the year 1973 - 74, number of poor persons
were 5.86 lacks which rose to 7.19 lacks in 1999-2000. Poverty is closely linked with unemployment
and underemployment. Urbanization could hardly absorb a little more than the natural increase in
urban population. As a result, a serious dent in terms of the shift of population from rural to urban
areas could not be made. To tackle this problem India president A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has proposed
the concept of “PURA” (providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) in the vision - 2020 project
initiated by him.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Bagla, Ashish and Gupta, Vivek. Detariffing-Whether Profitable to Insurer or Insured. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-18-22.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-AB-VG-3
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-3.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Inculcating A Corporate Revolution in the New Millennium

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Navin Kumar Garg, Head of the Commerce Department, S. D. (PG) College, Ghaziabad
Author 1-Email:
Author 2-Name:
 Dr. Aditi Garg, Lecturer in Commerce, S. D. (PG) College, Ghaziabad
Author 2-Email:

Abstract:  The corporate atmosphere is focused on the upbringing of a revolution in their work culture, performance and
operating results in the long term. Business and corporate houses of India actively participate in canvassing
the picture of new India in the new millennium. The basic idea is to draw attention towards the changes
required in adoption of mission, objectivity, strategy and ethics by the businesses and how to grab the
opportunities lying in the international markets. A guiding hand is mandatory in these conditions to handle
the crisis of values in managing funds, stocks, and human resources at work.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Garg, Navin Kumar and Garg, Aditi. Inculcating A Corporate Revolution in the New Millennium. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-23-25.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-NKG-AG-4
DOI : 
Web Address
: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-4.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Cross-Selling : Trend Setter of Modern Banking

Description: 

Author-Name:  Mohd. Arshad Khan, Faculty of Business Administration, Bareilly College, Bareilly, UP.
Author-Email:

Abstract:  This paper is a study of cross-selling practices in Indian banking industry through the case study method. This
study focuses on the prediction of cross-selling opportunities and attempts to answer the questions of who is
likely to buy additional products from the same company, what the next product is likely to be and when the
purchase is likely to be made?. The banking industry regularly mounts campaigns to improve customer value
by offering new products to existing customers. This approach gained momentum as a result of the increasing
availability of customer data and improved analysis capabilities through data mining. The cross-selling
practices in Indian banking sector are quite different. These differences emerge mainly from their different
philosophy, background and distinct target customer segments. However, both sectors can learn from each
other; public sector banks can introduce specialized training and incentives, whereas private sector banks
need to introduce appropriate control mechanisms and avoid indiscriminate cross-selling. The study mainly
focuses on state bank of India (SBI), the premier bank in the Indian banking sector. There are many ways to
increase a company volume of business and revenues, but not all involve increasing the customer portfolio and
market share. In most cases, companies ignore the advantage of increasing the value of their current customer
base by using cross-selling techniques. Cross-selling allows the company to after products or service in
addition to those already used by its customers, increasing their value for the company and, at the same time,
generating greater value for them.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Khan, Arshad. Cross-Selling : Trend Setter of Modern Banking. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-26-29.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-AK-5
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-5.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Critical Analysis of Mutual Fund in India

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Chandradeep Mishra, Team Leader, R- Systems International Ltd.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Mani Kansal, Lecturer, REGC, IIMS, Meerut
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  The Indian capital market has been increasing tremendously during last few years. With the reforms of economy,
reforms of industrial policy, reforms of public sector and reforms of financial sector, the economy has been
opened up and many developments have been taking place in the Indian money market and capital market.
During last one decade or so, role of Indian mutual funds industry as a significant financial service in financial
market has really been noteworthy. They now play a very significant role in channelizing the saving of millions
of individuals into the investment in equity and debt instrument. The main objective of this paper is to examine
the importance and growth of mutual funds and evaluate the operations of mutual funds and suggest some
measures to make it a successful scheme in India.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Mishra, Chandradeep and Kansal, Mani. Critical Analysis of Mutual Fund in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-30-38.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-CM-KM-6
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-6.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: India’s Foreign Trade in Post Reform Period (Trends in the Volume)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Vivek Srivastava, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, NREC College, Khurja
Author-Email:  vivekims97@gmail.com

Abstract:  Globalisation has become a ubiquitous term in international economy over the past two decades. Economic
liberalization, reforms, restructuring and globalisation have paved the way for a new wave in the Indian
economy. In modern times faster growth and development has been one of the most important phenomena and
ambition of almost all the nations. Moreover, there is greater awareness of global partnership among the
developing and developed nations for sustainable development today. More and more emphasis is being laid
on globalisation and openness.Trade policy reforms are a step in the right direction of making the foreign
trade regime in India, free from an over regulated trade policy. As far as expansion in foreign trade is concerned,
the most significant year in the entire period of reforms has been the year 2004-05. In this year exports
increased by 27.9 percent over the previous year while imports increased by 39.5 percent over the previous
year. Thus, these data indicate an increasing openness of the Indian economy in 1990s and given India’s own
economic past represents a significant change in its relationship with the world economy.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Srivastava, Vivek. India’s Foreign Trade in Post Reform Period (Trends in the Volume). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-39-43.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-VS-7
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-7.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Vocational Guidance : What, Why, How

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Ritu Mittal, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Psychology, Government Girls’ Degree College, Haldwani.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Dr. Deepa Verma, Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Psychology, MB (PG) College, Haldwani.
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  The vocational guidance are the backbones for the younger population of any country in general and for the
youngsters of a developing country like India is particular as the provide valuable opportunities to get
proper ingormation to plan the vocational course for the better tomorrow. The main aim behind vocational
guidance is to provide the eduction and training to students which allows them to contribute their best ot the
development of the society around them.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Mittal, Ritu and Verma, Deepa. Vocational Guidance : What, Why, How. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-44-46.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-RM-DV-8
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-8.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Marketing Philosophy of Indian Banking Industry : New Trends

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. G. S. Rawat, Reader, Department of Commerce, N.M.S.N. Dass (PG) College, Budaun (UP).
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  The choice-empowered customer is now commanding position to the throne, to borrow an expression from
military literature, dictating terms and proclaiming kingship. There is no any other way except for bankers to
wake up to this emerging reality and realize that, to be competitive. One must necessarily have to be customer
focused. For this reason, banker’s missions are no longer product, profit or even market oriented, but only
focused on customer’s supremacy. Technological competence can be a vital support, but marketing knowledge
holds the key. In most of the conventional banks the basic strength is the foundations of larger customers for
decades that are loyal. The scenario is not going to be the same for long. The entry of foreign banks and
emergence of new private banks have brought about certain market scales, which were not present before.
Many new novelties like bank expertise, new initiatives, and functional pattern have emerged. There are quite
a lot of things to follow in the system and styles of foreign banks. The question therefore boils down to the need
to be efficient and quick to understand the changing customer profile and customer requirements. Customer
will dominate the market. Bank with full capabilities for developing innovative products structuring and
down selling assets, offering floating rates for both loan and deposits has also operating in global foreign
exchange markets will be winners. For this propose credit management, product development market research
and treasury operations are the thrust areas which could require focused attention.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Rawat, G. S.. Marketing Philosophy of Indian Banking Industry : New Trends. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-47-50.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-SGR-9
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-9.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: HR Development in LIC of India (The Planning Process)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. (Smt.) Preeti Rani, Lecturer in Commerce, Government (PG) College, New Tehri.
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Human Resource Development’s main concern is the development of skill, abilities and knowledge. HRD is a
supportive system. Which helps the line manager and personnel people becoming more effective. Before
introducing the HRD as a system it is essential to create a conducive HRD climate in the organization. For an
approach on HRD strategies, the services of external consultants are taken in many of the organizations.
Thereafter, seminars are arranged at all management levels. Participation of union and associations is also
advisable in the seminars for HRD planning. Individuals from branches and offices from different part of India
of LIC can also invited for sharing their experiences pertaining to the HR Practices in the appropriate forums
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Rani, Preeti. HR Development in LIC of India (The Planning Process). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-51-54.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-PR-10
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-10.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Value Based Quality Budgeting Model (Excellence Model for IT Industry)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Sushil Sharma, Lecturer, Department of MBA, HIMT, Greater Noida
Author-Email:

Abstract:  Quality has emerged as the most important factor that distinguishes a product from its mere utility value to
brand that gives competitive edge over rival products. The fundamental idea here is to understand the value
of quality in any product/service the IT industry provides. Researching this, the author has extruded the
‘Value-Based Quality Budgeting Model’. Cycle tier from financial management perspective.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Sharma, Sushil. Value Based Quality Budgeting Model (Excellence Model for IT Industry). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-55-57.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-SS-11
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-11.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Development of Rural Economy Through Banking Reforms in India

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Mayank Mohan, Lecturer in Economics, Government College, Budaun (UP).
Author 1-Email:  mayank_bandhu@yahoo.com
Author 2-Name:  Shivani Choudhary, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, D. N. (PG) College, Meerut
Author 2-Email:  mayank_bandhu@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Development of rural areas in India is slow because we have concentrated mainly on urban development in
our country. Rural infrastructure is not only a key component of rural development but also an important
ingredient in ensuring any sustainable poverty reduction programme. The development of infrastructure and
newer agricultual techniques in rural areas will improve rural economy, employment and quality of life. i
Rural industrialization is also another area which will prove helpful in providing employment, removing
poverty and thus the development of rural areas. Further, our village cottage industries that have become
outdated due to lack of modernization should be aided, so that our huge labour resource may be employed.
Immigration of educated people to the cities makes the situation worst. Though there are handful of rural
people who can afford to have education in the cities yet when they get the chance they prefer to settle down
in cities only due to lack of employment opportunities and poor standard of living in rural areas. Our rural
economy is underdeveloped due to the shortage of finance. The poor rural people are not in a position to start
new businesses due to lack of initial and working capitals with them. Banks can help them to overcome this
problem. The main objective of establishing the regional rural banks is to provide credit and other facilities,
especially to the small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, artisans and small entrepreneurs in the
rural areas, who are under the shortage of funds. These banks should grant loans and advances, also to
artisans, small entrepreneurs and persons of small means engaged in trade, commerce and industry or other
productive activities. The financial assistance given to the industries in the rural areas will help the industrial
development of these areas. People will get the employment in their areas only instead of migrating to cities,
thereby reducing the problems of urban areas also.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Mohan, Mayank and  Choudhary, Shivani. Development of Rural Economy Through Banking Reforms in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-60-62.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-MM-SC-12
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-12.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Personality : The Essentials of Life

Description: 

Author-Name:  Gajendra Kumar, Lecturer in Management, ACTMT, Baghpat (UP).
Author-Email:  dr.gajendra21@yahoo.com

Abstract:  It is a mirror of life and an image/name/position in the world. It is basis of all achievement, happiness &
success. The present paper is a study of lecturers’ popularity & unpopularity on the basis of personality
traits.Personality is the combination of external as well as internal qualities. Personality makes a place in the
world. Personality provides the basis of people classification. Personality provides a recognition and image
in the world. Success lies in personality. Personality includes – Attitude, Perception and Ways of living. The
more attractive, pleasing and healthy personality, the more happiness, success and satisfaction.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:   Kumar, Gajendra. Personality : The Essentials of Life. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-63-66.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-GK-13
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-13.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Women Entrepreneur-Challenges ahead

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Lallan Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Institute of Technology and Science, Mohan Nagar, (UP).
Author 1-Email:  tripathi_1953@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Dr. B. K. Agarwal, Senior Lecturer in Commerce, D. N. (PG) College, Meerut.
Author 2-Email:  dr.brijesh.ag@gmail.com 

Abstract:  As per the data available, women constitute approximately 50% of world population, but they hardly receive
10% of total income and less than 1% of total assets owned by the society at large. To improve the social status
of women, it is necessary to mobilize this category of human resources towards gainful employment through
entrepreneurship. The inclusion of this class of society towards entrepreneurship, will not only widened the
span of the contributors to the gross domestic product but also enable them to improve their economic health
as well as contributing towards improvement of per capita income. The development of entrepreneurship
among the women will bring multifold impact on improvement of the social fabric, as it provide an opportunity
to be self employed, improvement of economic and social status as well as providing opportunity for the
employment to others. The development of entrepreneurship requires careful study and analysis of various
opportunities, besides facing multifold challenges, which are more complex in women due to their dual role to
play.The present paper is an endeavor to enlighten about the various challenges being faced by the women
entrepreneurs and probable approach to encounter the challenges coming in their ways.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Tripathi, Lallan and Agarwal B. K.. Women Entrepreneur-Challenges ahead. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-67-71.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-LT-BKA-14
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-14.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Applying Total Quality Management in Pedagogy

Description: 

Author-Name:  Col. (Dr.) Naresh K. Goyal, Director, Dewan V.S. Institute of Management Studies, Meerut. 
Author-Email:

Abstract:  The developmental needs in education should be interpreted in the context of the overall developmental needs
of the country and should take into consideration the developmental plans in other sectors. Education itself
aims at development of human resources. Therefore when one talks of TQM in education it means development
of those human resources which are involved in organizing, imparting and receiving education. Quality
education denotes developing individuals comprehensively to their full potential, unfolding the perfection
already existing in them. The challenge of management of quality in education is realizing optimally the
perfection already prevailing in individuals, not only among students but also among teachers and all those
who are some way or the other connected with imparting and organizing education.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Goyal, Naresh K.. Applying Total Quality Management in Pedagogy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-72-78.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-NKG-15
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-15.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: E- Advertising : Theory and Practice

Description: 

Author-Name:  Rahul Singhal, Lecturer, CERT, Meerut 
Author-Email:

Abstract:  Today we are living in Internet era. Internet make everything very easy for the public. We can get information
about anything from internet. Seeing the use of internet companies have begun to do advertising of internet. By
internet companies give information about their product and service to the customers . E-advertisement is also
economical for the companies. IT is a powerful tool to acquiring new customers. E-advertisement is one of the
most effective ways to interact with customers. US internet advertisement spend total $ 16.9 Billion in 2006.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Singhal, Rahul. Applying Total Quality Management in Pedagogy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-79-81.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-RS-16
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-16.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Role of RRBs in Indian Rural Economy

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. R.K. Singhal, Render in Commerce, D. N. College, Meerut.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Hari Om Agarwal, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, D. N. College, Meerut.
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  RRBs was established in 2nd October, 1975 with the notion of augmenting the outreach of the institutional
channel of credit in the remotest corner of rural India. Today they face a number of impediments in their
growth. Gangible reforms are necessary to make them work in today's competitive world. RRBs have some
features co-operatives and some features of commercial Banks. Like co-operatives they are rural oriented and
they are familiar with rural problems. The cost of management is also low since local people are recruited at
a lower salary. Side by side, like commercial banks, they operate as business organizations. They are empowered
to mobilise deposits and they have access to central money market. Each RRB is a sponsored organization. It
is mainly sponsored by a nationalised Commercial Bank. The sponsored commercial bank provides financial
assistance to the RRB, in several ways. Besides providing share capital to RRB, the sponsored bank also
provides managerial and other staff assistance. Lack of managerial efficiency is a weakness of village level
cooperative societies. RRBs should have to establish their own credibility among the rural poor. This can be
done only by understanding their problems and solving them properly through the timely supply of credit and
other required services for their economic upliftment.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Singhal, R.K. and Agarwal, Hari Om. Role of RRBs in Indian Rural Economy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-82-85.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-RKS-HOA-17
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-17.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Essay: The Financial System

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Gaurav Goyal, Senior Faculty, BBA Department, I. P. College, Bulandshahr.
Author-Email: 

Abstract: Financial instruments range from the common (coins, currency notes, demand deposits,
corporate debentures, gilt-edged securities and equity shres) to the more exotic (futures and options).
Financial instruments may be viewed as financial assets and financial liabilities.
Financial assets represent claims against the future income and wealth of others. Financial
liabilities, the counterparts of financial assets, represent promises to pay some portion of prospective
income and wealth to others. Financial assets and liabilities emanate from the basic process of
financing. They distribute the returns and risks of economic activities to a variety of participants. The
important financial assets and liabilities, claims and promises to a variety of participants.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation:  Goyal, Gaurav. Essay: The Financial System. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2008; 3: 2;Pp.-86-88.
Paper Code : JCT-O08-GG-18
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2008-v3i2-18.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download





INNER