Volume 4 Number 2: October, 2009

Title: Gender of the Consumer and Service Quality

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  H.M.R.P. Herath, Lecturer, Department of Marketing Management, Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Author 1-Email:  achirarid@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  W.M.C.B. Wanninayake, Senior Lecturer-II, Department of Marketing Management, Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Author 2-Email:  bwanninayake@gmail.com

Abstract:  Banking and financial services are a demand driven industry, which constitute an important part of the
services industry. Many regulatory, structural and technological changes have taken place within the world
banking industry, in line with the trend towards a more integrated global banking environment.The banking
sector in Sri Lanka grew rapidly in the recent years. Services sector accounts 56.2% of Gross Domestic
Product in Sri Lankan economy which is the highest in all sectors where as the financial services which
includes banking industry contribute 9.7% to total Gross Domestic Product. Further in Sri Lanka, financial
system of the country mainly depends on banking system because banking sector represents a share of 70.8%
of total financial system of the economy. The rapidly changing and highly competitive environment which
banks are forced to operate within are pushing them to rethink about their attitude towards customer
satisfaction and optimization of service quality. Therefore identifying the significance of the gender of the
consumers’ on the evaluation of service quality in the retail commercial banking industry of Sri Lanka is
significantly important. Further, it is worth to identify whether there is any difference based on the gender of
the consumers on evaluation of service quality of the banks that they are dealing with. Based on the stratified
sampling technique 150 consumers were selected as the sample. The scope of the study was retail consumers of
private and public commercial banks situated in the Gampaha district, who have been dealing with those
particular banks more than two years. Survey method used to gather primary data and it was developed on
SERVQUAL model of service quality. The gathered data were analyzed using ANOVA and findings showed that
there is no any difference among the consumer groups based on their gender in terms of evaluation of service
quality provided by the banks.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Herath, H.M.R.P. and Wanninayake, W.M.C.B.. Gender of the Consumer and Service Quality. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 5: 1;Pp.-5-13.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-HMRPH-WMCBW-1
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-1.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: E-Commerce and Consumer Apprehensions

Description: 

Author-Name:  Ajay Mahey, Lecturer, School of Correspondence, University of Delhi, Delhi.
Author-Email:  ajaymahey89@gmail.com

Abstract:  E-commerce has quickly evolved since the 1990’s and now has a powerful presence in the Indian Economy.
With thriving Indian websites and more than 49.4 million internet users in India, the e-commerce industry is
growing with each passing day. However, consumers have numerous apprehensions with e-business—from
payment issues, trustworthiness of sites, registration hassles to privacy issues. The paper is divided into four
sections. The initial sections comprise the introduction and historical backdrop of e-commerce. These are
followed by the section on growth of e-commerce in India which discusses the Indian usage data, Indian
websites and e-tailing growth in India. The last section is on consumer apprehensions which discusses the
points of views of buyers and sellers, demands of online consumers and understanding commerce schemes.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Mahey, Ajay. E-Commerce and Consumer Apprehensions. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 5: 1;Pp.-14-19.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-AM-2
DOI : 
Web Address : 
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-2.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Value Addition in Mobile Services and MMS

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Col. (Dr.) Naresh Goyal, Director, Dewan VS Institute of Management, Meerut.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Dr. Vaishali Goel, Assistant Professor, MIET, Meerut.
Author 2-Email:
Author 3-Name:
 Sandeep Kapoor, Senior Lecturer, MIET, Meerut.
Author 3-Email:

Abstract:  Mobile value-added services (MVAS) are those services that are not part of the basic voice service and are
availed off separately by the end user. They are used as a tool for differentiation and allow the mobile
operators to develop another stream of revenue. The nature of value added services change over time. Mobile
operators provide the following value added service:- MMS, Voice SMS, Contest Service, Interactive Media,
M-commerce, Missed Call Alert, Multimedia services, Mobile Marketing, M-search, Music, Phone back up,
Ring Back Tone,. This paper makes an attempt to understand the attitude of the people from different fields
towards the MMS in terms of Prestige, Fun, Blackmailing, Quick sharing, and Promotional campaign.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Goyal, Naresh and Goel, Vaishali and Kapoor, Sandeep. Value Addition in Mobile Services and MMS. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-20-24.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-NG-VG-SK-3
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-3.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Implementation of Basel – II Accord in India (Implications for Banking Governance)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. M. Raja, Assistant Professor (S.G.), School of Management, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
Author-Email:  raja@karunaya.edu
Author-Name:  Dr. J. Clement Sudhahar, Assistant Professor, School of Management, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.
Author-Email:  clemns@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  Basel II is the recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking
Supervision. The purpose of Basel II, in June 2004, is to create an international standard that banking
regulators about how much capital banks need to put aside to guard against the types of financial and
operational risks. Advocates of Basel II believe that such an international standard can help protect the
international financial system from problems that might arise should a major bank or a series of banks
collapse. In practice, Basel II attempts to setting up rigorous risk and capital management system. This
requires the banker, to establish the mechanism to capital reserves, bank risk exposes, lending and investment
practices. Generally speaking, the greater the amount of capital the bank needs to hold to safeguard its
solvency and overall economic stability. India is also not exempted from this risk because it agreed to
implement the Basel-II by 2008. With this background the present study is an attempt to provide a prelude to
the implementation norms of Basel Accord-II in India and its implication for the concomitant corporate
governance policies of banking sector.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Raja, M. and Sudhahar, J. Clement. Implementation of Basel – II Accord in India (Implications for Banking Governance). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-25-30.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-MR-JCS-4
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-4.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Earning Power Capabilities under GAAP and IFRS (A Case Study of Satyam And Infosys)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Prof. Pramod Kumar, Head, Department of Accountancy & Law and Dean, Faculty of Commerce, D.E.I. Deemed University, Dayalbagh, Agra.
Author-Email:  pra19363@rediffmail.com
Author-Name:  Rakesh Kumar, Research Scholar, Department of Accountancy & Law, Faculty of Commerce, DEI Deemed University, Dayalbagh, Agra.
Author-Email:  rakeshyadav301@gmail.com

Abstract:  India is going for the adoption of the IFRS from 01-04-2011 but a common conjecture is that after adopting the
international financial reporting standards may revolutionize the profitability analysis and may also change
the earning power of the companies. In the study an empirical research on the effects of the IFRS-adoption on
the earning power of the company by selecting Satyam Computer Services Ltd and Infosys Technologies Ltd,
two giants of Information technology and both are listed in the BSE, NSE NYSE. The study also discussed the
causes of the change in the earning power under the IFRS and Indian GAAP.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kumar,  Pramod and Kumar, Rakesh. Earning Power Capabilities under GAAP and IFRS (A Case Study of Satyam And Infosys). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-31-36.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-PK-RK-5
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-5.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Management of Working Capital for an Enterprise

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Neeraj Mittal, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, J.P. Institute of Management, Meerut, (U.P.) India.
Author 1-Email:  Neeraj_mittal2@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. S. S. Chauhan, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, J.P. Institute of Management, Meerut, (U.P.) India.
Author 1-Email:  Neeraj_mittal2@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  Management of these short term assets and liabilities warrants a careful investigation, since the working
capital management plays an important role in a firm’s profitability and risk as well as its value (smith, 1980).
This paper firstly defines the concept, purpose, scope, types / kinds and components of Working Capital
Management (WCM). Secondly, it analyzes that Working Capital Management (WCM) should not be excessive
and inadequate as both are harmful to the business. Excessive and inadequate Working Capital Management
(WCM) is dangerous for the components as well. So, we can say that working capital of an enterprise should
be optimal.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Mittal, Neeraj and Chauhan, S. S.. Management of Working Capital for an Enterprise). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-37-39.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-NM-SSC-6
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-6.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Entrepreneurship Practice – The Planning Advantages

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Lallan Tripathi, Professor, H.R. Institute of Professional Studies, Delhi-Meerut Road, Ghaziabad, (U.P.)
Author 1-Email:  tripathi_1953@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Dr. B. K. Agarwal, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut, (U.P.)
Author 2-Email:  dr.brijesh.ag@gmail.com 

Abstract:  With opening up of global market for almost all players around the world, the survival for the fittest will really
work in present days. The entrepreneurship practice is not insulated and will be affected from the competitive
approaches adopted by the other players. Planning is a key function in Entrepreneurship practice. If the
planning is done carefully, right from the initial perception stage of the project, probability of its successes will
be much higher than the careless and dependent exercise in Project implementation. The present paper is an
endeavor to make aware about the planning horizon to be pursued by the prospective Entrepreneurs before
stepping in to entrepreneurship practice.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Tripathi, Lallan and Agarwal, B. K.. Entrepreneurship Practice – The Planning Advantages. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-40-44.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-LT-BKA-7
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-7.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: NPA Management in Regional Rural Banks (A Case Study of Manipur Rural Bank)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. N. Tejmani Singh, Reader and Head, Department of Commerce, Manipur University, Canchipur.
Author 1-Email:  tejnqngmai@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Th. Jitendra Singh, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Manipur University, Canchipur. 
Author 1-Email:  tejnqngmai@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: The present study is an attempt to analyze the Non Performing Assets (NPAs) of Manipur Rural Bank (MRB).
Adequate credit availability to the rural masses is also one of the main objectives of the Government of India.
It will bring the socio-economic development of the country. To obtain this objective, Regional Rural Bank
(RRBs) were established (first five RRBs established in 1975) to provide loans and advances to the common
people who lived in rural areas. Manipur Rural Bank (MRB) has also been taking its role for the economic
development of the rural people since its inception in Manipur (1981). Unfortunately, this bank is now facing
the problem of NPAs. Non recovery also affects the profitability of banks. In fact, it is the level of NonPerforming
assets which to a great extent, differentiate between a good and a bad bank.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Singh, N. Tejmani and Singh, Th. Jitendra. NPA Management in Regional Rural Banks (A Case Study of Manipur Rural Bank). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-45-52.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-NTS-TJS-8
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-8.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Corporate Governance and Indian Banking Industry

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Prof. (Dr.) Sachindra Kumar Gupta, Disha Institute of Science and Technology, Dhampur, Bijnor.
Author 1-Email:  sachindra_gupta1@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Pradeep Kumar, Senior Lecturer, IIMT Professional College, Meerut 
Author 2-Email:  prakr2010@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study aims at examining the governance practice prevailing in the prominent banks of the Indian
Banking Industry within the Indian regulatory framework. The most accepted corporate mantra today is that
better the C.G. practice of an organization, the better the shareholders and stakeholders value creation. The
study aims at assessing the substance and quality of reporting of the corporate governance practice in the
annual report. This paper is based on two renowned banks in the banking industry i.e. SBI & ICICI bank, the
former being leading public sector bank and the latter being leading private sector bank. The study is based
on clause 49 of the Listing Agreement as prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India and
Narayan Murthy’s committee report on corporate governance.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Gupta, Sachindra Kumar and Kumar, Pradeep . Corporate Governance and Indian Banking Industry. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-53-55.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-SKG-PK-9
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-9.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Retail Banking Crossroads (Product Variants to Customers’ Variants)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dinesh Pratap Singh, Research Scholar, MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, (U.P.) India.
Author-Email:

Abstract: This paper is a study of cross-selling practices in Indian banking industry through the case study method. This
study focuses on the prediction of cross-selling opportunities and attempts to answer the questions of who is
likely to buy additional products from the same company, what the next product is likely to be and when the
purchase is likely to be made? The banking industry regularly mounts campaigns to improve customer value
by offering new products to existing customers. This approach gained momentum as a result of the increasing
availability of customer data and improved analysis capabilities through data mining. The cross-selling
practices in Indian banking sector are quite different. These differences emerge mainly from their different
philosophy, background and distinct target customer segments. However, both sectors can learn from each
other; public sector banks can introduce specialized training and incentives, whereas private sector banks
need to introduce appropriate control mechanisms and avoid indiscriminate cross-selling. The study mainly
focuses on state bank of India (SBI), the premier bank in the Indian banking sector.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Singh, Dinesh Pratap. Retail Banking Crossroads (Product Variants to Customers’ Variants). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-59-62.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-DPS-10
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-10.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Developing Shared Leadership through Encounter Group Training

Description: 

Author-Name:  Anshul Taneja, Senior Lecturer, Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi, Delhi
Author-Email:  anshultaneja@yahoo.in

Abstract: One milestone in the development of leadership theories is that of shared leadership. This concept brings about
the function of leadership being shared amongst team members through the collective development of vision,
shared responsibility, shared work goals, trust and free flow of information. The key to the success of shared
leadership lies in open communication. Encounter group training is a powerful tool to open up team members
and bring about the free communication and trust that will allow interpersonal sharing. This training
methodology can play a significant role in shared leadership by developing the very qualities necessary for it
to happen. The article is divided into five sections. After the introduction, a section is devoted to the concept
of shared leadership followed by a section on encounter groups. The next section elaborates on the working of
encounter groups followed by a case study of an encounter group session conducted by the author. The last
section contains the concluding observations.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Taneja, Anshul. Developing Shared Leadership through Encounter Group Training. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-63-68.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-AT-11
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-11.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Socio-Economic Empowerment of Women

Description: 

Author-Name:  Neha Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, D.N. (P.G.) College, Meerut.
Author-Email:  nehapretty85@gmail.com

Abstract: Women’s empowerment in India is challenging task as we need to acknowledge the fact that the gender based
discrimination is a deep rooted social malice practiced in India in many forms since thousands of year.
Women’s education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of half of the human
resources but improving the quality of life at home & outside. Although most women in India work & contribute
to the economy in one form or other much of their work is not documented or accounted for in official statistics.
We can say that women are equally competitive to men & even surpassing the men. There is no field today
where is not approaching. Women have posed a threat to the success of the men. When we talk about women
empowerment in India the most important aspect that comes into the mind is attitude of the society towards
women. Women are still considered as burden & liabilities. Violence against women is not a myth but a reality.
It is a global phenomenon. The development of the country is not possible if women, comprising half of the
human resources as labour force & citizens stay away from the national development process.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation:  Sharma, Neha. Socio-Economic Empowerment of Women. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-69-71.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-NS-12
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-12.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Gulf Between Higher and Weaker Sections of Society

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Shivani Chaudhary, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, D. N. College, Meerut (U.P)
Author 1-Email:  shivanichaudhary83@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Mayank Mohan, Lecturer in Economics, Govt. Degree College, Budaun (U.P.).
Author 2-Email:  mayank_bandhu@yahoo.com

Abstract: An expansion of money supply upto the point of full employment may not be harmful for the economy. In fact,
mild inflation may even serve as a tonic for the economy of the country. But an expansion of money supply after
the point of full employment certainly degenerates into runaway or hype-inflation and thus is very harmful for
the economy of a country. It creates business uncertainty which is harmful to production. In fact, hyperinflation
disrupts the smooth functioning of the economy. When the whole global market is facing the problem
of economic depression, our country is also not an exception to that. Though the situation is not that much
critical as in American and European countries. But the question is;Is this economic depression benefiting
India? To some extent it is true. There is large scale inflation in our country because of which the number of
millionaires is increasing day by day. Also the number of poor is increasing. The rate at which inflation is
increasing the dreadful gulf of inequality is also digging up in our society. It is a big question; what will be the
economic picture of our country in the forthcoming years?
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Chaudhary, Shivani and Mohan, Mayank. Gulf Between Higher and Weaker Sections of Society. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-72-74.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-SC-MM-13
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-13.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Quality of Working Life (A Study of Government Schools of District Amritsar)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Kawaljit Kaur, Lecturer, MBA, Swami Satyanand College of Management and Technology, Amritsar.
Author 1-Email:
Author 2-Name:  
Dr. Sonika Chaudhary, Guest Lecturer, Swami Satyanand College Management and Technology, Amritsar.
Author 2-Email:

Abstract:  The concept of the ‘Quality of Working life’ is imprecise and thus problematic to operationalise. As per the
present scenario whether is banking sector , pharmaceutical or Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
everything has been made target oriented. Under such system of working, the employees have to pay in terms
of increasing work pressure, ascending stress and stress related problems are alarming proportions. Hence,
the purpose of my study i.e. quality of working life (in particular among teachers). Here “Quality of working
life” is abbreviated as QWL. In short the above analysis showed that QWL in govt. schools is good but still
there are many schools available in rural areas where facilities are provided but there is lack of many
facilities. So, to improve the overall QWL in govt. schools rural areas schools should be given more attention.
Keywords:
stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kaur, Kawaljit and Chaudhary, Sonika. Quality of Working Life (A Study of Government Schools of District Amritsar). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-75-83.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-KK-SC-14
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-14.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Irrigataion And Economic Development (A Comparative Regional Analysis of Karnataka State)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. D.M. Madari, Lecturer, Department of Economics, Karnataka State Women’s University, Bijapur.
Author 1-Email:  madaridm@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Shiv Kmar Deene, Lecturer, Department of Management (MBA), Karnataka State Open University, Mysore.
Author 2-Email:  drdeene@rediffmail.com

Abstract:  The economic development of Karnataka is mainly dependent on the development of agriculture. Irrigation is
the main infrastructure for development of this vital sector. The modernization of agricultural practices vis-à-
vis increase in productivity of crops cannot be conceived in absence of assured irrigation facilities. The
importance of irrigation development in a State like Karnataka therefore, needs no special emphasis. Like
other leading States in India, the programmes for development of irrigation in Karnataka has been launched
under two heads, viz., Major, Minor& Medium Irrigation . The present paper attempts to identify the irrigation
and agricultural development disparities in the state, regions which beset within the purview of other regions
of the state and provide justification for renewed and reinforced as well as developmental focus on this region.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Madari, D.M. and Deene, Shiv Kmar. Irrigataion And Economic Development (A Comparative Regional Analysis of Karnataka State). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-84-90.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-DMM-SKD-15
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-15.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Expenditure Pattern of Small and Marginal Farmers (A Case Study in Mukhed Taluka of Nanded District)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Nagorao H. Awade, Gramin Vidyalaya (ACS), T.Q. Mukhed, District Nanded (Maharashtra)
Author-Email:

Abstract:  India is a agricultural country. Majority of the farmers are classified as small & marginal farmers having a
land holding of less than 5 acres. These farmers are generally living below poverty line and their problems
have a special importance in rural economic growth and development. Income of a farmer determined by the
size of holding i.e. the land owned and possessed by the farmer. Higher the size of holding higher is the income
potential. Higher the income potential higher is the socio-economic status. Present study is related with the
group of small and marginal farmers living in economically backward region of Marathwada in Maharashtra.
This study of expenditure pattern highlights the overall pattern of expenditure of small & marginal farmers.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Awade, Nagorao H.. Expenditure Pattern of Small and Marginal Farmers (A Case Study in Mukhed Taluka of Nanded District). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-91-102.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-NHA-16
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-16.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: B3M : The Voice of India (Black Money)

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Shyam Kumar Ghai, Assistant Professor and H.O.D., Dewan V. S. Institute of Marketing Management, Meerut.
Author 1-Email:  shyam_ghai2007@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name:  Dr. S.K. Sharma, Reader, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut.
Author 2-Email:  shyam_ghai2007@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  It is like a story. A few centuries ago India was the world’s wealthiest nation. There was no poverty, plenty to
eat, trade was booming riches abounded. Fittingly, it was called the “golden bird” by the rest of the world.
And then the rest of the world came falling: first the Mughals and then the Europeans, including the British.
Between them, they plucked bare the bird of gold. By the time India became independent, it was a hollow shell
riddled with poverty, illiteracy and crippling debt, this was a fairy tale minus the happy ending. Certain time
periods have been termed as Golden periods in the Indian history, based on the achievements Indians made in
the fields of mathematics, astronomy, science, architecture, religion and philosophy during those periods.
World’s Oldest Civilization present in this world today. World’s First known literate country with their very first
written and spoken language on this world “Sanskrit.” India was the world’s richest country until 1600 A.D,
when the British imperialized and destroyed their Wealth, Unity, or say the “Entire Country.” Today India has
religious hatred and political problems, which are the result of the Britain’s 200 years of rule over India, and
their “divide and rule” policy. And it is facing the BLACK era of “Poverty, Over Population, and Politicians.”
Running beside the Future, escaping the BLACK era, and lighting the Dark Places, India is trying to improve
its condition day by day. It is fast becoming the Back Office of World, Big companies like Dell, Verizon, and
many others are moving to India. Each and Every youngster is building an Entrepreneur Community. But the
Rural Area which has been neglected by the so called leaders at large since independence.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Ghai, Shyam Kumar and Sharma, S.K.. B3M : The Voice of India (Black Money). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-103-110.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-SKG-SKS-17
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-17.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Foreign Direct Investment and its Theoretical Approaches

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dinesh Kumar, Lecturer, Department of Economics, C.C.S. University, Meerut.
Author-Email:  dk260544@gmail.com

Abstract:  Multinational Enterprises enter the host countries via FDI, portfolio investment, export or through leasing of
technology and patents (Frank, 1980).While considering cross border investment, it is important to distinguish
between FDI and Portfolio Investment. Portfolio Investment involves passive holding of securities and other
financial assets, which does not reflect active management or control or both of the security’s holders. High
rates of return and reduction of risk through geographic diversification positively influence it. The management
dimension is what distinguishes FDI from Portfolio Investment in foreign stocks, bonds and other financial
instruments Several theories on FDI as envisaged above basically cover two distinct approaches: microeconomic
approach approach (Buckley and Casson, 1976). While microeconomic approach to FDI flow attempts to
explain why firms in one country are successful in penetrating into other markets, the macroeconomic approach
(Buckley and Casson, 1976) tries to examine why firms look for international expansion.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies

Citation: Kumar, Dinesh. Foreign Direct Investment and its Theoretical Approaches. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-111-115.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-DK-18
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-18.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Current Economic Recession : Concept, Causes and Effects

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. M. L. Agarwal, Reader, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College Meerut (U.P.)
Author 1-Email:  anshu_bansal26@yahoo.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Anshu Bansal, Department of Commerce, D.N. College, Meerut (U.P.)
Author 2-Email:  anshu_bansal26@yahoo.com

Abstract: The term Business cycle or Economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity (business fluctuations)
around its long-term growth trend. The cycle involves shifts over time between periods of relatively rapid
growth of output (recovery and prosperity), and periods of relative stagnation or decline (contraction or
recession). These fluctuations are often measured using the GDP. Traditional business cycles undergo four
stages: expansion, prosperity, contraction, and recession. The phases of the business cycle are characterized
by changing employment, industrial productivity, and interest rates. Some economists believe that stock price
trends precede business cycle stages. Despite being termed cycles, the Recession of 2008 is the next Globalization,
privatization and Industrialization has made the counties so interdependent that a change in any economic
barometer, in any country especially which is economically strong, is felt in other countries too. In the light of
above states facts this article deals to understand: what is an economic recession? How it has affected the
Indian industries? What are the remedies to get rid off this problem/How to respond to a recession?
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Agarwal, M. L. and Bansal, Anshu. Current Economic Recession : Concept, Causes and Effects. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-116-120.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-MLA-AB-19
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-19.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Quality And Satisfaction Interface In Professional Colleges (Ananlysis of the Relationship)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Gajendra Kumar, Lecturer Department of Management Studies, ACMT, Baghpat,
Author-Email:  dr.gajendra21@yahoo.com

Abstract:  The present study focuses on the factors essential for quality education in professional colleges. There is a true
effort to find out the essentials of quality education. To fulfill this purpose, the opinions, suggestions and
guidance of various faculty of different professional colleges have been welcomed. There is effort to focus on
the role of management’s commitment and satisfaction of faculty in quality education. Undoubtedly, Quality
Education is must for the true success, achievement & glory.By achieving quality education ,students get
placement in reputed organizations and that builds a good image of college & provides a competitive edge to
the college.Quality education must be a vision of every college only then we can achieve success in true sense.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kumar, Gajendra. Quality And Satisfaction Interface In Professional Colleges (Ananlysis of the Relationship). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-121-123.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-GK-20
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-20.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: A Study of Examination System of AICTE

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Shiv Kumar Garg, Lecturer, Mahaveer Institute of Technology, Meerut.
Author 1-Email:
Author 2-Name:  
Dr. A. K. Sharma, Reader, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut.
Author 2-Email:

Abstract:  Since last two decades, hurried expansion of technical institutions in India has resulted in deterioration in
quality of technical manpower coming out from these institutions on account of poor infrastructure, admission
policy and above all the examination system adopted by these institutions. Decline in quality of technical
education is evident from the fact that a sizeable segment of the qualified engineers seriously lack in
communication skill, experimental skill, mathematical skill, analytical skill and problem solving skill. Quality
problems in the examination system in general have been analyzed. Thorough overhaul in the examination
system with regard to its policies, procedures and practices have been suggested. Statistical analysis of the
examination results has been suggested for identifying the problems in the examination saystem as well as in
the teaching process of a university. Other remedial measures have also been suggested to make the examination
system more efficient in order to produce technical manpower of superior quality.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Garg, Shiv Kumar and Sharma, A. K.. Quality And Satisfaction Interface In Professional Colleges (Ananlysis of the Relationship). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-124-127.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-SKG-AKS-21
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-21.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Microfinance : An Innovative Tool for Women Empowerment in Rural Area

Description: 

Author-Name:  Saroj Ranjan, Lecturer, Faculty of Management Studies, Sultanpur. 
Author-Email:  saroj.ranjan@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Women are identified as a mother, a wife, sister, daughter and daughter in law but she is not treated as
independent person. Women have remained backward owing to many factors the scriptures laid down an
exalted status for them in recent year , there has been an increasing awareness and recognition of the fact that
women who formed half of the society can’t be ignored . Government initiates many policies for betterment of
women status in society &for empowerment. Microfinance programmes for women are increasingly seen by
development agencies as an effective poverty alleviation intervention, with a positive impact on economic
growth and number of social development indicators. High repayment rates are interpreted to mean that
women are using loans productivity and controlling credit. It is widely assumed that there is a clear and
direct relationship between access to credit and increase in the status of women within their house holds and
communities, provision of credit is believed to lead to empowerment of women. This paper reflects on women
as a primary strategy for addressing poverty & empowerment. Key words: scriptures, laid down, exalted,
empowerment, alleviation, intervention.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Ranjan, Saroj. Microfinance : An Innovative Tool for Women Empowerment in Rural Area. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-128-130.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-SR-22
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-22.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Export Promotion Incentives (Instrument of Economic Growth)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Bhawana Batra,Research Scholar, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administation, D.N. College, Meerut. 
Author-Email:  drbhawnabatra@gmail.com

Abstract:  Export promotion was recognized as one of the important objectives of the Five Year plans. Various supporting
measures like the export entitlement scheme, the duty drawback scheme, export promotion capital goods
Scheme etc. were introduced. Exports are the result of a series of steps which include improved technology of
production, financial arrangement, export marking, packing, consumer preferences in the buyer countries,
disadvantage in pricing due to domestic factors such as internal taxation, import restrictions, high prices of
indigenous raw material or poor quality of locally available material. Most developing countries have
resorted to a number of export promotion measures. With a view to make exports an effective instrument for
promoting greater economic activity and employment a number of schemes which have been in existence for
some time now are strengthened and improved. our export promotion measures should be directed towards
the realisation of the end of creating right commerical image. Exprots are vital for self-sustined growth, and
therefore export promotion incentives should be considered as a base of international trade of the country. for
which the need of the hour is a long term export strategy.
Keywords: stress; employee attraction; pressure; turnover; retention strategies
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Batra, Bhawana. Export Promotion Incentives (Instrument of Economic Growth). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October 2009; 4: 2;Pp.-131-136.
Paper Code : JCT-O09-BB-23
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2009-v4i2-23.pdf
Archive : 

Article Views  :  

Download





INNER