Volume 6 Number 1: April, 2011

Title: Agricultural Scenario in Punjab and Farmers' Suicides

Description: 

Author-Name:  Randeep Kaur, Assistant Professor, T.S.G.G.S Khalsa College, Amritsar.
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Suicide by farmers in Punjab has been an ongoing reality for years. A typical Punjabi is often considered as an extrovert, a social fellow who likes to eat well, dress well and even if he is
in a tight spot, he would remain in “chardi kala.” Punjab is an agricultural predominant
state of the country and credit is an important factor in the adoption of technological
innovations. In the Present paper attempt has been made to examine the phenomenon of
suicide among farmers in Punjab state in relation to growing economic distress in the rural
areas.
Keywords: Business Cycle Theory, Neoclassical School, Originating Cause, and Self-Generating Cycle.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kaur, Randeep. Agricultural Scenario in Punjab and Farmers' Suicides. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.5-11.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-RK-1
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-1.pdf
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Title: Employees Attitude Towards Performance Appraisal— A Case Study on Life Insurance Corporation (LIC)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Pallvi Vadehra, Faculty, Amity Global Business School, Hyderabad (A.P).
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  The purpose of this research paper was to analyze the overall attitude of employees working
in LIC (Life Insurance Corporation) India towards the performance appraisal system used
by the organization. The study involves using some key questions to gauge satisfaction of
Class I, Class II and Class III employees towards existing appraisal process and also to
determine the relevance of this process in making decisions regarding job confirmation,
transfer and promotion of LIC employees. In this paper we have determined how much satisfied
are employees with the current method for appraising the performance and what are the
limitations of using the existing method for performance evaluation. Results showed that
though employees fairly consider appraisal as a vital tool towards their development, but
there is significant difference in their views about effectiveness of current performance
appraisal process in LIC. Interview results showed that only less than a quarter of respondents
are of the view that the present performance system is effective and serves its purpose and
majority of 80 per cent of the respondents feel that the system is just meeting the paper
requirement and needs to be changed. Research data also shows that more than 70 per cent
of employees are of the view that adequate training is must for appraisers to make the
performance appraisal process work effectively.
Keywords: Business Cycle Theory, Neoclassical School, Originating Cause, and Self-Generating Cycle.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Vadehra, Pallvi. Employees Attitude Towards Performance Appraisal— A Case Study on Life Insurance Corporation (LIC). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.12-17.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-PV-2
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-2.pdf
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Title: E-Governance and Its Impact on Common Populace

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Author-Name:  Dr. Rana Zehra Masood, Faculty Member, Department of Commerce, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  All over the world, the spectacular growth and development of information and
communication Technology (ICTs) has changed the total scenario of our daily life and their
subsequent use on strengthening interaction among public entities, civil societies,
communities and citizens has given rise to a new governance paradigm known as EGovernance.
Electronic Governance (e-Governance) is the application of information &
communication technologies to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and
accountability of informational & transactional exchanges with in Government, between
govt. & govt. agencies of National, State, Municipal & Local levels, citizen & businesses,
and to empower citizens through access & use of information” Presently, E-Governance is
more than a Government website on the internet. Political, social, economic and technological
aspects determine the scope and success of existence of E-Governance. It may include a
broad range of services for many segments of society. The most common areas of e-Governance
application are electronic commerce and business regulations, taxation and revenue, law
enforcement and courts, education, health and transport. E-Governance facilitates a
competent, speedy and translucent procedure to disseminate information to the public and
other agencies, and to execute Government administration activities. A lot of initiatives
have already been taken in the area, but specialists clamour for things to be implemented. A
lot of measures are still to be taken for authenticity and confidence in online transactions.
This paper intended to focus on the objectives, scope, initiatives taken by E-Governance
together with challenges faced during the implementation and Recommendations to overcome
these challenges.
Keywords: E-Governance, Government, ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies)
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Masood, Rana Zehra. E-Governance and Its Impact on Common Populace. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.18-26.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-RZM-3
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-3.pdf
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Title: Changing the Change as a Source of Value Creation not Being a Root of Employee Stress

Description: 

Author-Name:  Sonika Sharma, Assistant Professor, Jaipuria Institute of Management Studies, Vasundhara, Ghaziabad. 
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Linkages amongst the components of an organisation and their constant and energetic
interactions are of elemental importance to management researchers and practitioners.
Throughout most sectors of the economy, a sense pervades that the party is over. While for few
this appears to be true but for many the party is never over except the change of dimension. In
this situation question creeps in the mind of a common man is that ‘Can we create a sustainable
change’? The answer would obviously be ‘not’. One of the dangers the companies fall in this
scenario and even in some turnarounds is the near panic over what it will take to keep a team
focused and in their seat. Generally speaking, organisations do not change in this way but
that has not been fatal to this paradigm. Instead, accepting it without challenge, people rush
around trying to find new tricks for making things happen which leads to employee stress.
Though all of us have read the theories of economic booms and downturn, none of us were
prepared for the change i.e. economic crisis that hit the World in 2008. The question is still
unanswered that whether this downturn is a part of the typical economic cycles or was it
precipitated by other factors like dearth of corporate governance and compliance.
Nevertheless the economic downturn is now a topic of discussion in boardrooms, classrooms,
cocktails, gossip groups and even among friends getting together casually but people hardly
discussed it as a change. The change which led to suicides by many who lost their jobs, many
remained under stress for quite a long time and almost every employee was under stress for
some time. The question arises how we can change the change so that it becomes a source of
value creation instead of a cause of employee stress? To answer this all the present paper has
been attempted which focuses on three key aspects.
Keywords: E-Governance, Government, ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies)
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Sharma, Sonika. Changing the Change as a Source of Value Creation not Being a Root of Employee Stress. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.27-32.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-SS-4
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-4.pdf
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Title: Analysis of Indian Retail Market Before And After Recession of Indian Economy

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. P.K. Agarwal, Director, Vidya International School of Business, Meerut.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Pradeep Kumar, Assistant Professor, IIMT Professional College, Meerut 
Author 2-Email:  
Author 3-Name:
 Swati Gupta, Assistant Professor, IIMT Professional College, Meerut
Author 3-Email:  

Abstract:  Retail became a buzz word in India before recession; in fact the word ‘booming’ was found
only attached to this sector. The recent few years gone by were packed with several significant
developments for the Indian retail industry, including the entry of many global players,
growing acceptance of the modern formats, the success of many speciality retail formats, and
the rising competition in the regional markets beyond the metros and Tier 1 cities. But as
recession took its toll 99% of sectors went for a toss including retail. The current slowdown
is expected to last 12–18 months conditional on government incentives in increasing spends
on infrastructure, development initiatives and other activities to stimulate the economy. This
study focuses on comparison of Indian retail before recession & after recession. In this
research we have analysed the effect of recession over different commodities in retailing
based on some key parameters. Along with the study of effect this research paper also provides
certain strategies which could be beneficial for the retailers in the long run. This study lime
lights the strategies that the key players are planning to implement in order to recover from
the ill-effect of recession.
Keywords: Recession, Retail Brands, Economy, Inflation, Consumer Behavior.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Agarwal, P.K. and Kumar, Pradeep and Gupta, Swati. Analysis of Indian Retail Market Before And After Recession of Indian Economy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.33-37.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-PKA-PK-SG-5
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-5.pdf
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Title: Growth of Indian Rural Market : An Invitation to FMCG Sector

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Author-Name:  Dr. Rajesh Kesari, Head of Department (Commerce Faculty), Nehru Gram Bharati University, Kotwa Jamnipur, Allahabad.
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) have attracted Indian villagers, when the urban
demands for the goods are getting saturated, the manufacturing companies look at this
development as an opportunity, Large FMCG companies including multinational companies
(MNC) are planning their own strategies to enter this large and developing rural market.
The marketing strategies have to be tailer made to suit rural conditions the FMCG producers
now realize that there is a lot of opportunity for them to enter into the rural market. The sector
is excited about the rural population whose incomes are rising and the life styles are changing
there are as many middle income house holds in the rural areas as there are in the urban. The
FMCG sector has been successful in selling products to the lower and middle income groups
and the same is true in India. Over 70% sales is made to middle class households to day and
over 50% of the middle class in rural India. Many companies in the FMCG sector in India
have taken up a developmental approach to nourish this new market. This paper covers to
rural, the challenges, the difference between the rural and the urban market and the suitable
marketing strategy with suitable example of companies and their experience in going rural.
Keywords: Recession, Retail Brands, Economy, Inflation, Consumer Behavior.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kesari, Rajesh. Growth of Indian Rural Market : An Invitation to FMCG Sector. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.38-41.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-RK-6
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-6.pdf
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Title: Holistic Marketing of Software Products : The New Paradigm

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Ashutosh Nigam, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Management Studies, Vaish College of Engineering, Rohtak, Haryana.
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  The software product firms needs to be competent in offering services with ever changing
demands of the dynamic marketing environment. To overcome these barriers, the firms should
focus on holistic marketing strategy based business processes to establish niche markets for
their specialized products. Holistic marketing embraces all aspect of firm, software product
and measure of usage of software product. The concept stresses on the interrelationship with
the stakeholders to achieve distinction with core focus towards the customer requirements
Keywords: Recession, Retail Brands, Economy, Inflation, Consumer Behavior.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Nigam, Ashutosh. Holistic Marketing of Software Products : The New Paradigm. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.42-48.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-AN-7
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-7.pdf
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Title: Holistic Marketing of Software Products : The New Paradigm

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Author-Name:  Dr. Sachindra Kumar Gupta, DIST, Dhampur, Bijnor. 
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  In the light of corporate governance practices envisaged by the recent amendments to the
companies Act, 1956 and the provision of Sebi’s revised clause 49 of the Listing Agreement,
this case study evaluates the quality of corporate governance practices in I.T. industry in
India, particularly based on the annual report of Infosys Technologies, a leading Indian I.T.
firm for the financial year 2008-2009. The study is expected to serve as a pointer to the
effectiveness of current corporate governance practice in Infosys Technologies, in particular,
and the Indian corporate sector, in general
Keywords: Recession, Retail Brands, Economy, Inflation, Consumer Behavior.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Gupta, Sachindra Kumar. Holistic Marketing of Software Products : The New Paradigm. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.49-55.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-SKG-8
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-8.pdf
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Title: MNREGA : Success and Failure

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Rakesh Kumar Agarwal, Reader in Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut. 
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name
:  Prabhat Choudhary Research Scholar 
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  Realising the need of generating employment opportunities in the country to achieve a
satisfactory rate of employment in the country, Government of India launched the National
Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in September 2005. This Act will provide a legal
guarantee for atleast 100 days of employment every year for atleast one adult member
(willing to do unskilled manual work) of the rural household. Though the scheme was
initially introduced in only 200 districts, it is now functionig in all the districts of the
country. The MNREGS is the largest employment programme in the human history. It has
completed five years of its implementation and has provided employment to around 40
million rural households. Under Section 4 of the Act, the Scheme to be formulated by the
State Governments will conform to the legally non-negotiable parameters laid down in
Schedules I and II of the Act. In addition, these Schemes will conform to the operational
parameters delineated in the Guidelines. The Scheme so formulated will be called the National
Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), followed by the name of the State. The
Gram Panchayats, PRIs, District and State Level department personnel involved in
implementing NREGS, as well as committees, groups formed for the purpose of vigilance will
be monitoring and perform social audit by the Government of India. Social audit is an
effective tool for the implementation of NREGS. It is a process which promotes mass awareness
and also ensures people’s participation.
Keywords: Recession, Retail Brands, Economy, Inflation, Consumer Behavior.
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Agarwal, Rakesh Kumar and Choudhary, Prabhat. MNREGA : Success and Failure. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.56-61.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-RKA-PC-9
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-9.pdf
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Title: Increased Organization Turnover : Job Satisfaction and Good HR Policies and Practices

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Anurag Joshi, Assistant Professor IIMT Engineering College, Meerut
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:  Kumar Ratnesh, Assistant Professor IIMT Engineering College, Meerut 
Author 2-Email:  
Author 3-Name:  Ritu Kothiwal, Assistant Professor IIMT Engineering College, Meerut  
Author 3-Email:  

Abstract:  Organizational turnover defined as the revenue generated by the organization in context of
viable efforts made by its member whether they are managerial or technical persons, in
terms of productivity. A positive drive or incline in productivity is an output of sum total of
the practices like, Education, Scientific recruitment method, Critical Evaluation of
Performance Appraisal, Revision of Compensation plans, Organizational development,
flexible time hours, Effective communication system, Quality of Work life, Creativity &
innovation, Knowledge Management and Reward & recognition system. These practices
lead the satisfaction level of organizational member which provides tangible output in term
of improved performance and hence organizational turnover with expanding the tenure
and stability of both the organization and the one’s.
Keywords: Scientific Recruitment method, Differential Placement, Cafeteria approach
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Joshi, Anurag and Ratnesh, Kumar and Kothiwal, Ritu. Increased Organization Turnover : Job Satisfaction and Good HR Policies and Practices. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.62-65.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-AG- KR-RK-10
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-10.pdf
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Title: Future of e-Banking in India— An Empirical Study of Employee’s Perceptions

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. R. K. Uppal, Head, Dept. of Economics, D.A.V. College, Malout, Punjab  
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  The paper is an attempt to study the perceptions of employee’s regarding e-banking services
and their future in India. On the basis of five-point likert-type scale, this paper concludes
that the employees are satisfied with the working of e-channels and they are agree to use
the e-channels but not much satisfied with the knowledge management and behavioral
aspects of e-banking. The employees experienced some frustration and a major problem of
lack of knowledge of e-channels and their operating ways while dealing with these channels
are the most prevalent ones.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Uppal, R. K.. Future of e-Banking in India— An Empirical Study of Employee’s Perceptions. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.66-77.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-RKU-11
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-11.pdf
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Title: Competitive Strategies of ICICI Prudential Life Insurance— An Inclusive Analysis

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  C. Barati, Research Scholar, Manipur Institute of Management Studies, Manipur University, Chanchipur, Imphal.  
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Dr. Ch. Ibohal Meitei, Associate Professor and Director incharge, Manipur Institute of Management Studies, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal.
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  ICICI Prudential Life Insurance which was the market leader among the private
life insurers for the period 2000-2009, has been witnessing erosion of its market share
coupled with huge amount of accumulated losses. The business performance of the company
has been encouraging with both the gross premium, new business premium and renewal
premium growing at a steady pace. The company offers a wide bouquet of products catering
to the needs of different target segments and has been a pioneer in leveraging technology to
provide services according to varied customer needs. With the impending growth of
competitive pressures due to the imminent entry of new players in the industry, the need was
felt to analyse the competitive strategies adopting by the company so as to understand its
strengths and areas requiring managerial focus. The researcher has relied on secondary
data in order to identify and analyse the competitive strategies adopted by the company
during the period 2004-09.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Barati, C. and Ch. Meitei, Ibohal. Competitive Strategies of ICICI Prudential Life Insurance— An Inclusive Analysis. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.78-85.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-CB-CIM-12
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-12.pdf
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Title: Investment Through Mutual Fund

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Author-Name:  Dr. Sudhir Kumar Chauhan, Associate Professor-Commerce, Govt. Degree College, Pihani, (Hardoi)  
Author-Email:  
Author-Name:
 Dr. Shalabh Gupta, Research Scholar, Govt. Degree College, Pihani, (Hardoi)   
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Indian Mutual Fund Industry is increasing by leaps and bound . Since its inception in 1964
there was only 25 cr. Assets under management like a sapling but now it has grown into a
big banyan tree with assets of Rs. 4,81,749 cr under assets management companies up to
march 2010. It shows that people are investing through Mutual fund due to its low risk,
uniqueness and special benefits. In the present research paper an endeavour is made to
aware the investment community about the Mutual Fund schemes, its growth during the
years and investment strategy to make extra ordinary return from the investment in various
schemes of Mutual Fund operated by both public and private sector.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Chauhan, Sudhir Kumar and Gupta, Shalabh. Investment Through Mutual Fund. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.86-91.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-SC-SG-13
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-13.pdf
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Title: Analysis of Dematerialisation of Securities

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Nishi Sharma, Assistant Professor, UIAMS, Panjab University, Chandigarh.      
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Rapid pace of technical advancement and evolution of e-business has broken out traditional
and conventional mindset of the people. Since last decade, tremendous changes have taken
place almost in every sector and financial sector being at forefront, has experienced greater
amount of variation ranging from way of financing to investing. In this direction, there has
been paradigm change in the method of maintaining the securities from physical holding to
electronic form of holding popularly known as dematerialisation. The concept of
dematerialisation of securities provides immense benefits to the investors and has been in
practice in developed nation quite extensively. However in developing nations like India, it
has been come to the existence since 1996 with the enactment of depository act. Being a new
concept, very limited research work has been done in this direction. The present paper
describes the development of the concept of dematerialisation particularly in India and
attempts to analyse its future prospects. It attempts to explore opportunities and challenges
to dematerialisation and submits certain recommendations to meet the challenges.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Sharma, Nishi. Analysis of Dematerialisation of Securities. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.92-97.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-NS-14
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-14.pdf
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Title: Marketing Strategy of Vehicle Finance

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Author 1-Name:  Nikhil Ranjan Agarwal, Research Scholar, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Dr.K.C. Gupta, Associate Professor in Commerce, Hindu College, Moradabad
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  This paper briefly tries to evaluate the marketing strategy of vehicle finance. For this purpose,
an empirical study is undertaken on Western Uttar Pradesh vehicle finance companies
covering Bareilly, Moradabad, Meerut and Ghaziabad. The researcher measures and
evaluates current state of customers’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with regard to purchase
made by consumers belonging to middle income group. This research examines the impact of
vehicle finance activities on consumers, marketing intermediaries and other related group.
The result of this empirical study reveals that there is no association between consumers’
overall experience as a customer of vehicle finance schemes and measure of consumers’
awareness about terms of vehicle finance and sources of information on various vehicle
finance schemes.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Agarwal, Nikhil Ranjan and Gupta, K.C.. Marketing Strategy of Vehicle Finance. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.98-106.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-NRA-KCG-15
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-15.pdf
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Title: Impact of WTO an Indian Agricultural Prices

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Shilza, Shrinagar, Garhwal
Author-Email:  

Abstract:  Globalization, the part of economic reforms, initiated in India during 1991. World Trade
Organization (WTO), the second generation of economic reforms has emerged as extended
trend of globalization. Like other sectors, agriculture has also undergone many changes
since 1995, after WTO. The developed countries have established WTO according their
welfares and have made various loopholes in the Agreement on Agriculture (AOA) and
allied agreements so that they may block the agricultural imports from developing countries.
On the other hand, India has reduced tariffs and other restrictions during the last few years.
Because of high level of export subsidy which is given through the Green Box and Blue Box
under WTO in developed countries, Indian farmers have to sell their agricultural products at
a low price to face the competition with cheap foreign products. We analyzed that the annual
average inflation rate in agriculture decreased from 10.52% in pre WTO period to 5.34% in
post WTO period. Thus, these data indicate that the growth rate of wholesale prices of
agricultural products in India has decreased significantly during post WTO period.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Shilza. Impact of WTO an Indian Agricultural Prices. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.107-111.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-S-16
DOI : 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-16.pdf
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Title: A Study of Disinvestment and Privatization Polices of PSU in India

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Arvind Kumar Yadav, Assistant Professor, K.M.G.C., Badalpur, Gautam Budh Nagar.  
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Dr. Vadana Sharma, Lecturer in Economics, KMGC, Badalpur, Gautam Budh Nagar.
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract:  Public enterprises in certain fields are not able to compete with the private enterprises.
Their profitability is still not very satisfactory. However, it may be said that profitability is
not the only criterion to judge the efficiency of the state enterprises, yet one always expects
that there should be a fair rate of return on capital invested in public undertakings because
it would otherwise mean a constant drain on capital and the ultimate closure of many
undertaking. The term disinvestments are used to indicate the process of privatization. Since
the beginning of 1980s, the functioning of the public sector began to be questioned. It was
held that the public sector performed well only when protected through state monopolies,
entry reservations, high tariffs and quotas etc. Since quite a large number of public enterprises
incurred losses year after year, it was argued that the state should not be called upon to meet
the losses of these enterprises out of taxpayers, money. In view of the fact that in our country
the public sector had entered into too many areas, the question of withdrawing from these
areas was also raised. Consequently, the question of privatization of the public sector was
debated disinvestment is the process through which privatization could take place. The
advocates of privatization have always held that the magic of private property can turn sand
into gold. In other words mere change of ownership can bring about sea change in the
culture of an organization. If this statement is taken at its face value, the logic follows that
the private sector should take over the loss making concerns and converts them into profit
making organization. But even disinvestments ministry has conceded whether the taxpayers’
money can be saved from commercial risks by transferring the risk to the private sector
wherever the private sector is willing to step in and assume such risks. If past is any guide,
the private sector has shown its keenness to take change of PUSs which are highly profit
making leaving weak and sick PSUs in the top of the public sector. The Disinvestments
Ministry should be cautious of transferring PSUs which are milch cows to the private sector
by acquiring strategic partnership to the extent of 26%.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Yadav, Arvind Kumar and Sharma, Vadana. A Study of Disinvestment and Privatization Polices of PSU in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.112-116.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-AKY-VS-17
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-17.pdf
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Title: A Study of Techniques and Management of Inventory

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Author-Name:  Sanjeev Kumar, Assistant Professor & Head, KMGC, Badalpur, Gautam Budh Nagar. 
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Abstract:  Inventory management is an integral part of a successful business. Inventories typically
consist of goods, raw materials and finished products. Each of these elements translates into
money for the business owner. The key to profitability is a carefully balanced inventory.
Balanced inventories are important because many businesses rely on its stock of items to
make a profit. Stockpiles that never move from the shelves do little good for the company. A
proper balance is of the utmost importance. At the same time, there are issues with inventory
control when there isn’t enough stock on hand. One common problem is running out of
inventory, which is caused by trying to reduce inventory costs too much. This is something
that no business wants to have happen, but it happens to virtually all of them at some point.
Even the largest stores run out of certain products from time to time when they sell or use
more than they expected. This can cause financial losses when inventory is not available for
customers to purchase. Part of inventory control is trying to minimize shortages so these are
rare occurrences. Most businesses expect they will have shortages on occasion and they
have calculated that the small loss is worth the money saved by not having an overstock.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Kumar, Sanjeev. A Study of Techniques and Management of Inventory. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.117-119.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-SK-18
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-18.pdf
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Title: A Study of Applications of E-Commerce

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Author-Name:  Dr. D.R. Yadav, Reader in Commerce, Meerut College, Meerut. 
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Author-Name:  Reena Sharma, Research Scholor, Jodhpur University, Jodhpur
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Abstract: There are wide varieties of e-commerce application areas that have flourished over the last
decade in more detail, it is worth looking at one which may not be familiar to a reader, but
which saves companies huge amounts of resources. The application involves a supply chain.
A supply chain is a set of relationships between a number of companies who have a symbiotic
relationship with each other in that one company supplies commodities or services to other
companies which, in turn, supply commodities or services to other companies, and so on. The
example was originally described by Kalakota and Robinson (1999) in their excellent
management introduction to e-commerce. It concerns the processes involved in getting a
bottle of Listerine mouthwash to the shelves of a retail chemist.
Keywords: E-Channels, Employee’s Perceptions
Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Citation: Yadav, D.R. Sharma, Reena. A Study of Applications of E-Commerce. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2011; 6: 1;Pp.120-122.
Paper Code : JCT-A11-DRS-RY-19
DOI : 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2011-v6i1-19.pdf
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