Volume 6 Number 2: October, 2011

Title: Changing Trade Relation of India & Pakistan: An Evaluation

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Vivek Kumar Srivastava, Assistant Professor in PGDBM, Ishan Institute of Management & Technology, Greater Noida
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Author 2-Name:  Dr. Bhavtosh Kumar, Principal, Janta Aadarsh Inter College, Ghariya Manpur, Bulandshahr
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Abstract:  Kautilya was the first one to write extensively on political economy. He theorized that to maintain a strong kingdom, the king must develop healthy relations with the neighbouring states through trade. When we talk about India, we can never ignore the Pakistan. India and Pakistan are the countries whose relations not only affect the economic relations of both the countries but also have some influence in the world politics. Pakistan is a neighbouring country of India. But the relationship of both the countries is bitter enough since 1947. Due to this there is extra burden on Indian economy on defence sector. If there is a good relationship it will be beneficial for growth and development of both the countries. So, there is a need to find out the solution of some major problems which exist between both the countries. An effort is made in this article to search out solutions of some big problems between India and Pakistan. 
Keywords: Political Economy, Trade Relation, Evaluation
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:   Srivastava, Vivek Kumar and Kumar, Bhavtosh. Changing Trade Relation of India & Pakistan: An Evaluation.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp5-10.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-VKS-BK-1
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-1.pdf
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Title: Software Metrics: Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds

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Author-Name:  Abhishek Kumar Maheswari, Faculty of Computer Science, Venkteshwara Group of Institutions, Meerut
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Abstract:  In this article, we present a algorithmic method for the calculation of thresholds (the starting point for a new state) for a software metric set. To this aim, machine learning and data mining techniques are utilized. We define a data-driven methodology that can be used for efficiency optimization of existing metric sets, for the simplification of complex classification models, and for the calculation of thresholds for a metric set in an environment where no metric set yet exists. The methodology is independent of the metric set and therefore also independent of any language, paradigm or abstraction level. In four case studies performed on large-scale open-source software metric sets for C functions, C++, C# methods and Java classes are optimized and the methodology is validated.
Keywords: Algorithmic, Metrics, Optimization, Thresholds
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:   Maheswari, Abhishek Kumar. Software Metrics: Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp11-26.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-AKM-2
DOI: 
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Title: Software Engineering in the Academy

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Author-Name:  Lokesh Khurana, S.P.C. Degree College, Baghpat
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Abstract:  There is no universally accepted definition of software engineering. For some, software engineering is just a glorified name for programming. If you are a programmer, you might put “software engineer” on your business card but never “programmer.” Others have higher expectations. A textbook definition of the term might read something like this: “the body of methods, tools, and techniques intended to produce quality software.” Rather than just emphasizing quality, we could distinguish software engineering from programming by its industrial nature, leading to another definition: “the development of possibly large systems intended for use in production environments, over a possibly long period, worked on by possibly many people, and possibly undergoing many changes,” where “development” includes management, maintenance, validation, documentation, and so forth. 
Keywords: Maintenence, Validation, Software Engineering 
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:   Khurana, Lokesh. Software Engineering in the Academy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp27-30.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-LK-3
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-3.pdf
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Title: Unemployment Problem among Youths of Uttarakhand State(A Case Study Conducted in 2009 of New Tehri District)

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Preeti Rani, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Government (PG) College, New Tehri, Garhwal (UK)
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Author 2-Name:  Dr. M. K. Agarwal, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Government College, Punwarka, District Saharanpur
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Abstract:  Unemployment is the basic problem which has given birth to a number of connected problems, such as poverty, social disorder, insecurity, maintenance of law and order etc in the State of Uttarakhand. At the time of establishment of Uttarakhand State though the government en made and announced many policies to recover the problem of unemployment, yet it is also the big truth that the government remained failure to achieve the target of full employment. Various factors are responsible for this phenomenon which includes a large number of old age people, lack of employment among women, lack in mobility, cold weather, natural problems, illiteracy, geographical conditions etc. Moreover, also largely dependence on government organizations, lack of industries, ignorance about small and cottage industries are the big hurdles in the employment generation in this State. This problem can be removed by raising the level of investment in hill areas’ small villages and towns in Uttarakhand. Accelerating the process of industrialization can also help to reduce the level of unemployment. Government policies and planning should be employment-oriented so that it may prove meaningful for the masses. Also a long-term population policy along with an effective employment policy can rid of Uttarakhand State from the menace of unemployment in the years to come. 
Keywords: Unemployment, illiteracy, Geographi
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Rani, Preeti and Agarwal, M. K.. Unemployment Problem among Youths of Uttarakhand State (A Case Study Conducted in 2009 of New Tehri District). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp31-35.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-PR-MKA-4
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-4.pdf
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Title: Information Technology and the Structuring of Organizations

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Author 1-Name:  Ashish Bagla, Assistant Professor, S. D. College of Engineering and Technology, Muzaffarnagar
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Author 2-Name:
 Vivek Gupta, Assistant Professor, S. D. College of Engineering and Technology, Muzaffarnagar
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Abstract:  A lot of money is invested by organization to develop a meaningful information system that can serve their purpose. But the status of end user and their information required present a set of unique and different problem that need to be overcome. The environmental success of this kind of information system model is affected by various factors like people, activity and system involved in development cycle, apart from the rest of element used in their development cycle.This paper in prepared to develop effective computerized information system model by displaying how the people, activity, and system can influence the model by associating or non associating with the model. This paper also highlights the relation between these factors. The element making up the framework can be summarized in 3 words: people, activities and systems. These elements form the main components of the information system model. They are the elements within an organization, which have an effect on and describe the development and usage of information system model. The framework is described using set theory. Each of these 3 components is assumed as sets containing element present in an organization during system development. 
Keywords: Information Technology, Organizations, Structuring
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Bagla, Ashish and Gupta, Vivek. Information Technology and the Structuring of Organizations. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp36-39.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-AB-VG-5
DOI: 
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-5.pdf
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Title: A Study on Growth and Instability of Poultry Farms in Namakkal District (Tamilnadu)

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Author 1-Name:  S. C. Vetrivel, Assistant Professor, School of Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode - Dt, Tamilnadu
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Author 2-Name
:  M. Mohanasundari, Lecturer, School of Management Studies, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode - Dt, Tamilnadu
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Abstract:  India is a developing country primarily has an agricultural economy. If agriculture blooms, the country prospers. Agriculture is a diversified subject covers such activities as farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery including agro- based industries in broader concept. Rural development improves the quality life of the weaker sections and gives way for participation and involvement of the masses in the process of decision making in economic and social life of and society.They provide livelihood to and million of rural house holds in the sub marginal level both land less and small landholders. They prove to be the best way to alleviate rural poverty and reduce income disparities. Industrial sector depends on agriculture for their raw material and allied products. Poultry and egg are popular food articles of high nutritional value and so and major break through have been achieved in egg production and broiler stock. This due to integrated development of breeding feeding, marketing, healthcare and nutrition etc. Poultry farming by providing additional income to the agricultures helps them to earn more and helps the nation to develop with out any wide disparities in the of income.
Keywords: Poultry Farms, Instability, Nutritional, Egg Consumption, Livelihood
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Vetrivel, S. C. and Mohanasundari, M.. A Study on Growth and Instability of Poultry Farms in Namakkal District (Tamilnadu). Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp40-45.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-SCV-MM-6
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-6.pdf
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Title: International Trade Problems and India: A Case Study

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Author-Name:  Dr. R. Ramachandran, Assistant Professor in Commerce, DDE, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu.
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Abstract:  The liberalisation of international trade in services will put them at an even greater disadvantage in terms of their government’s sovereignty and of developing their domestic service industries. However, just as there are vastly different levels of development among Third World countries, especially in India there are also differing views on the costs and the magnitude of these costs of freeing-up the trade in services. For instance, India had led a number of developing countries in opposing the inclusion of discussions on the trade in services in the Uruguay Round. Broadly speaking, both developed and developing countries benefit from a liberalisation of trade in services in terms of efficiency and competitiveness. The industrial countries would accrue large trade benefits from more liberal trade in services, since services constitute a large portion of their total exports. The paper emphasises on modern international trade, began with the industrial revolution and the decline of mercantilism. As the industrialised nations, became richer due to their control over manufacturing commodities and trade, they began demanding and producing more sophisticated and expensive products. They found that the only feasible sources of the goods they wanted were from other countries, and were also the only countries rich enough to buy the new manufactured goods they were producing. Thus, India has had a major challenge in the changing composition of imports and exports when effects of independent India’s economic polices started becoming clear. 
Keywords: International Trade, Libralisation, Economic Policies
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Ramachandran, R. International Trade Problems and India: A Case Study. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp46-53.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-RR-7
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-7.pdf
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Title: Recommendations of PM Task Force on Credit to MSEs: A Critical Analysis

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Author 1-Name:  Sanjay Rautela, DGM, NSIC Ltd., Mumbai
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Author 2-Name:
 Dr. M. D. Somani, Redear, Department of Commerce, BLP Government PG College, MHOW, MP
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Abstract:  The MSEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies and are credited with generating the highest rates of employment growth and account for a major share of industrial production and exports. In India also, the MSEs play a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country. They are largest employment provider only after the agricultural sector. The MSE account for 13% of GDP of the nation, and their output constitute about 39 percent share of the value addition in manufacturing sector & about 33% of total export from India. Realizing the potential of this sector our Prime Minister has set up a task force under the chairmanship of principal Secretary to address the issues of MSE Sector. The Task Force covers the issues of Credit, Marketing, Labour, Exit Policy, Infrastructure/Technology/Skill Development, Taxation and Special Package for North East/Jammu & Kashmir. The Task Force submitted its report in the month of January 2010. For any unit to start & function smoothly, money is essential, as such, credit can be termed as lifeline of any unit in-spite of its size, whether small or large. The issue of credit comprises of Availability of adequate credit in time, Cost of credit, Collateral requirement, Access to equity capital, Rehabilitation of sick units etc. The recommendations made by the task force, if accepted by the cabinet & implemented by the concerned implementing agencies are likely to have significant impact on the growth of this sector. In addition to this a great task ahead is of monitoring the implementation of the recommendations. The suggestions made by us in this paper, if implemented, will definitely make the task of implementing as well as monitoring agency very easy. 
Keywords: Task Force, MSEs, Sick Units, Rehabilitation
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Rautela, Sanjay and Somani, M. D. Recommendations of PM Task Force on Credit to MSEs: A Critical Analysis. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp54-58.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-SR-MDS-8
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-8.pdf
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Title: Tourism in North East India: From Management's perspectives

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Author-Name:  Jaydeep Bhattacraya, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Gurucharan College, Silchar
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Abstract:  Tourism as an industry is a modern concept but it is now the second largest industry of the present super industrialized world. Its development is considered to be essential because of its anticipated economic benefits of income and employment; as statistics show that it provides jobs to one in every, sixteen workers throughout the world. Tourism is defined as the sum of the relations and services connected with a temporary and voluntary change of residence for non-commercial or non-professional reasons. It is ful1her defined as the sum total of the operations, mainly of an economic nature, which is directly related to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or region. Tourism is an industry composed of a group of firms that are engaged in the business of selling to or serving tourists Hotels, restaurants, transportation and amusements are examples of the types of firm that collectively constitute the Tourism industry. The north east tourism is very rich in all aspect but is unexplored. To make it a vibrant one, the attitudinal change is required. The seven sisters and one brother state can jointly play an active role in promoting tourism in this area. The states are homogenous in character and thus, it will be easy for them to cooperate and reduce cost. For this, an effective organization structure and proper management is required. The paper deals with the same. 
Keywords: Tourism, North East India, employment
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Bhattacraya, Jaydeep. Tourism in North East India: From Management's perspectives. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp59-64.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-JB-9
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-9.pdf
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Title: Applicability of Talent Management with Special Reference to Automobile Industry of Krishnagiri District

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Author 1-Name:  R. Santoshkumar, Assistant Professor, DOMS, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur & Research Scholar, M S University, Tirunelveli
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Author 2-Name:
 Dr. N. Rajasekar, Director, Department of Business Administration, Thiyagarajar College of Arts and Science, Madurai
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Abstract:  This research paper examines the applicability of Talent Management in Automobile Industry in Krishnagiri district. The primary data collected from the 100 different levels of employees in automobile industry. Hypothesis test used to measure the applicability of talent management. This paper found the executives feel that Talent Management is the competitive Advantage for the company; they believe that their company’s recruitment policy is leveraged towards recruiting top talent. This study helps the company to retain present talented workforce and stop them from quitting the organization. Critical Talent has been defined and identified at covering all staff level positions, suggestions have been proposed in line with company’s requirements and capabilities and to select the perfect and highly skilled employees for the organization.
Keywords: Talent Management, Retain, Skilled, Employees, Applicability
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Santoshkumar, R. and Rajasekar, N.. Applicability of Talent Management with Special Reference to Automobile Industry of Krishnagiri District. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp65-69.
Paper Code: JCT-O11-RS-NR-10
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-10.pdf
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Title: Consumer Legislation and Media Information Sources in India

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Author-Name:  Vinod Kumar Sharma, Research Scholar
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Abstract:  The consumer has every right to reject any product or services rendered by any manufacturer in the market and can suggest them to produce goods of their choice. Indian Consumer are ignorant, illiterate and do no know the role of consumption vis-a-vis economic system as well as quality of life. When they are ignorant of their rights, they cannot know their responsibility as consumers. Consumers in the market find themselves deceived by wrong weights and measures, adulterated and substandard products causing great damages to health. Many constitutional provisions have been made by government to protect the consumers. Until and unless the consumers avail of these provisions, the protection of consumer becomes inevitable. There is a great need to make them aware of their rights and responsibilities in India.
Keywords: Consumer, Media, Legislation, Government Service, Information
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Sharma, Vinod Kumar. Consumer Legislation and Media Information Sources in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp70-74
Paper Code: JCT-O11-VKS-11
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-11.pdf
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Title: Indian Unemployment Conundrum Natural Factors Endowments Puzzle

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Kavita Saxena, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, D. N. (PG) College, Meerut
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Author 2-Name:  S. N. Ghosh, Research Scholar, D. N. (PG) College, Meerut
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Abstract:  India’s GDP growth has recovered fast from the global crisis, nonetheless very little is reliably known on whether it has generated adequate employment opportunities or has remained jobless in nature. The rate of unemployment appears stuck at around eight per cent.An issue for policy research thus emerges, why despite India’s factor endowment, organized sector has been choosing to replace labour with capital at this scale and whether there are policy distortions that encourage this which should be corrected. Thus, India has enormous challenges of not only absorbing new entrants to the job market but also clearing the backlog. Demographic disparities have accentuated the problem of unemployment/underemployment. Which is why still one of the three world’s poor is Indian. To realize the cherished dream of ‘inclusive growth’ it is imperative to take immediate steps of capacity building of job-seekers. Vocation training should be accelerated should be accessible to all not restricted to privileged few and also it must be economically affordable. MSME is the panacea of India malady. 
Keywords: MSME, Unemployment, Endowments
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Saxena, Kavita and Ghosh, S. N.. Indian Unemployment Conundrum Natural Factors Endowments Puzzle. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp75-79
Paper Code: JCT-O11-KS-SNG-12
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-12.pdf
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Title: Analysis of Operational Efficiency in Indian Banks: A Comparative Study

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Author-Name:  Jagdish R. Raiyani, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Shree Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati MBA College, Tankara-Rajkot(Gujarat), India.
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Abstract:  Many firms in the service industry face the problem of disparate results in terms of efficiency. This problem is a cause of concern for many big organizations such as banks, hotels, courier companies, and so on. In particular, the last decade has witnessed continuous changes in regulation, technology and competition in the global financial services industry, and Indian banks are no exception. Rising cost-income ratios and declining profitability reflect increased competitive pressure. To assess the stability of the banking system, it is therefore crucial to benchmark the performance of banks operating in India. An efficient banking system contributes in an extensive way to higher economic growth in any country. Thus, studies of banking efficiency are very important for policy makers, industry leaders and many others who are reliant on the banking sector. The present study investigates the technical efficiency of Indian banks, segmented in terms of ownership. For this purpose, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was used with five input variables (viz. borrowings, deposits, fixed assets, net worth, and operating expenses) and four output variables (advances & loans, investments, net interest income, and non-interest income), and the efficiency scores were calculated for a sample of forty-nine major banks operating in India.
Keywords: Financial Services, Banking Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis, Technical Efficiency, Borrowings, Deposits.
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Raiyani, Jagdish R.. Analysis of Operational Efficiency in Indian Banks: A Comparative Study. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp80-88
Paper Code: JCT-O11-JRR-13
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-13.pdf
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Title: Fallacious Administrative and Judicial Approach to Farmers' Loan

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Author-Name:  Dr. Rabindra Kumar Mishra, Lecturer in Economics & Principal-in-Charge, Sohela Degree College, Sohela, Bargarh(Orissa), India.
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Abstract:  This paper analyses the responsibility of judiciary and financial institutions to save the farmers from debt trap and suicide. Really the farmers are not improving by the application of high yielding seeds, quality fertilizers, and powerful pesticides rather they are victimised for this being over shadowed by loan. It is rightly felt the need of a debate and solution to the problem of loan, subsidy, repayment of loan, honesty of related administration, untimely change of weather leading to crop failure, lack of required help lack of arrangement of suitable rate and market. So, in this paper different dimension of judicial provision, constitutional arrangement, responsibility of financial institution and government policies etc have been examined to safeguard the interest of farmers for over all agricultural development of the nation.
Keywords: Fallacious Administration, Judicial Approach, Loan
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:  Mishra, Rabindra Kumar. Fallacious Administrative and Judicial Approach to Farmers' Loan. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp89-92
Paper Code: JCT-O11-RKM-14
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-14.pdf
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Title: Role of Credit Co-operatives in the Agricultural Development of India

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Author-Name:  Dr. R. Uma Devi, Department of Commerce, Dr. S. R. K. Government Arts College, Pondicherry University, Yanam, India
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Abstract:  Agricultural development is essential for the overall development of any country for which credit is an essential input. Due to the disadvantages of non-institutional sources, the GOI launched various financial institutions in order to provide adequate, cheap and timely credit to the needy farmers. In the context of liberalization, privatization and globalization of the Indian economy, Cooperatives are recognized as the only institutions, which may improve the quality of rural households. On this backdrop, an attempt is made to analyze the role of credit cooperatives in the agricultural development of India. 
Keywords: Agricultural Development, Credit Cooperatives
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:  Devi, R. Uma. Role of Credit Co-operatives in the Agricultural Development of India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp93-99
Paper Code: JCT-O11-RUD-15
DOI: 
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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-15.pdf
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Title: Performance Improvement through Implementation of Lean Maintenance

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Author 1-Name:  S. Kolanjiappan, Research Scholar, Sathyabama University Engineering College, Chennai.
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Author 2-Name:
 Dr. K. Maran, Director of Management Studies, Dri Sairam Engineering College, Chennai.
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Abstract:  Lean Maintenance is a relatively new term, invented in the last decade of the twentieth century, but the principles are well established in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). Lean Maintenance—taking its lead from Lean Manufacturing—applies some new techniques to TPM concepts to render a more structured implementation path. Tracing its roots back to Henry Ford with modern refinements born in Japanese manufacturing, specifically the Toyota Production System (TPS). Lean seeks to eliminate all forms of waste in the manufacturing process—including waste in the maintenance operation. Plants can accelerate their improvements with much lower risk through the elimination of the defects that create work and impede production efficiency. Optimizing the maintenance function first will both increase maintenance time available to do further improvements and will reduce the defects that cause production downtime. Thus cost reduction and improved production are immediate results from establishing Lean maintenance operations as the first step in the overall Lean Enterprise transformation. This paper discusses the application of lean principles in maintenance of aircraft, and describes some of the lean tools and techniques that are being used to transform maintenance process. This research study was based upon defects occurred on ten aircrafts for the period of three years in one of the private aviation industry. System wise defects data were collected and the effect of the trend of these effects was investigated thoroughly.
Keywords: Kanban, Total Productive maintaince, Predictive Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Reliability Centered Maintenance
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation:  Kolanjiappan,  S. and Maran, K.. Performance Improvement through Implementation of Lean Maintenance. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp100-106
Paper Code: JCT-O11-SK-KM-16
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-16.pdf
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Title: Image or Text Retrieval on Internet - A Fuzzy Approach

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. (Col.) Rakesh Sharma,Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:  Saurabh Rawat, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Graphic Era University, Dehradun.
Author 2-Name:  

Abstract:  In this paper various aspects of image/text retrieval on the internet have been seen. Many images are indexed by keyword or retrieved by similarity of a “key image “. Existing work in areas such as linguistic variables for describing spatial relationships and color have natural applications in the area of image retrieval. Unlike image databases, the internet is large and heterogeneous. The result of retrieval is necessarily a dialogue between the user and retrieval system. In this paper, several aspects of internet information retrieval where fuzzy logic can be applied are highlighted. 
Keywords: Internet Information, Imaging
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Sharma, Rakesh and Rawat, Saurabh. Image or Text Retrieval on Internet - A Fuzzy Approach. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp107-110
Paper Code: JCT-O11-RS-SR-17
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-17.pdf
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Title: Working Capital Management in Respect of Automobiles Industry in India

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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-18.pdf

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Title: Presentation through Graphs or Thinking in Pictures

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Author-Name:  Supranshu Sahagal, TGT - Maths, Sir Shadi Lal Inter College, Mansurpur (Muzaffarnagar)
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Abstract:  The great problem of every teacher is to present facts in such a way that the students cannot help seeing what is meant. A bald statement is soon forgotten. Vivid images remain in the memory. Many people must have noticed the difference between reading a history text-book and seeing an historical film. Whatever the relative accuracy of the book and the film, the film certainly makes one realize events more intensely, and remember them longer. In films it is sometimes necessary to explain quite complicated ideas, not to a class of students, but to an audience which represents the whole population of a country. Cinema audiences, too, are in no mood for concentrated thought. They want to relax, to be amused. It is extremely instructive to examine how film directors go about the job. They rarely fail to make their point understood-a fact which should be seriously considered by those defeatists in education whose perpetual alibi is the stupidity of pupils. 
Keywords: Graphs, Mathmatics
Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Citation: Sahagal, Supranshu. Presentation through Graphs or Thinking in Pictures. Journal of Commerce and Trade, October, 2011, 6: 2. Pp117-121
Paper Code: JCT-O11-SS-19
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/october2011-v6i2-19.pdf
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