Volume 7 Number 1: April, 2012

Title: An Analytical Study of NPAs in Public Sector Banks in India

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Author-Name:  Manish Bhaskarbhai Raval, Assistant Professor, Lt. Shree M. J. Kundaliya English Medium Mahila Commerce College, Kasturba Road, Rajkot, Gujrat.
Author-Email:  manishraval810@gmail.com

Abstract:  When the funds lent by the bank become doubtful or irrecoverable, it is termed as non-performing assets (NPAs). Banks are required to make provisions for such NPAs. RBI has issued guidelines for the provision for NPAs. According to RBI guidelines assets are classified as standard assets, sub-standard assets, doubtful assets and loss assets. The per cent provision of 0.40 per cent, 10 per cent, 100 per cent and 100 per cent respectively are required to be made by the banks. The presented article attempts to find out the position of Gross NPAs and Net NPAs in public sector banks in India. Applying the test of hypothesis using the F-test, it is found that Gross NPAs to Total Assets Ratio shows decreasing trend. The article attempts to find out the ratio Gross NPAs and Net NPAs to Total Assets and Advances. This ratio shows fluctuating trend in all the public sector banks. 
Keywords: NPAs, Trend Analysis
Classification-JEL: E53, E58

Citation:   Raval, Manish Bhaskarbhai. An Analytical Study of NPAs in Public Sector Banks in India.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp5-12.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-MBR-1
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-1.pdf
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Title: Financing of SMEs and Credit Risk-The Inevitable 5Cs

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Author-Name:  Nidhi Bhatt, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Allahabad, Allahabad
Author-Email:  nidhiallahabad@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  Financing of Small and Medium Enterprises, popularly known as SMEs, is a priority for banks. These little growth engines play a crucial role in the overall economic development of the country as they contribute greatly in terms of output, exports and employment. But as the sector is characterized by information asymmetries, high processing cost and unsophisticated management; financing of SMEs remains a major policy concern. Whenever we talk of strategic areas for SME Banking performance, Credit Risk Management emerges out to be an important one. Assessing credit risk involved in the proposal of small entrepreneurs is a challenging task which is culminated by means of a proper study of the famous five Cs– Character, Capacity, Capital, condition and Collateral. The paper analyzes these inevitable factors in relation to the financing of SMEs.
Keywords: Credit Risk, SMEs, 5Cs, Collateral Security
Classification-JEL: G32

Citation:   Bhatt, Nidhi. Financing of SMEs and Credit Risk-The Inevitable 5Cs.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp13-17.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-NB-2
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-2.pdf
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Title: A Study of FDI in Service Sector of India

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Author-Name:  Dr. Dinesh Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, C. C. S. University, Meerut
Author-Email:  dk260544@gmail.com

Abstract:  In recent years, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) have been playing an increasing role of enhancing the global competitiveness of firms of developing economies by providing access to strategic assets, technology, skills, natural resources and markets apart from enhancing south- south cooperation. The first decade of this century has also witnessed a number of emerging markets FDI is the key contributor for the enhancement of the industrial production, efficiency and productivity not only in developing countries but developed countries also. In India, it has been used as the vital tool for the upgradation of technological knowledge, competitiveness, know- how and managerial skills. The present paper is an attempt to analyze the significance of FDI in services sector in India after 1991.
Keywords: Service Sector, Employment Service, Indian Economy, FDI
Classification-JEL: O14, O19, F23, L80

Citation:   Kumar, Dinesh. A Study of FDI in Service Sector of India.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp18-22.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-DK-3
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-3.pdf
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Title: Impact of Globalization in Different Sectors of Commerce in India

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Author-Name:  Dr. Raj Kumar Verma, Commerce Teacher, C. A. B. Inter College, Meerut
Author-Email: 

Abstract:  Globalization is a widely defined word today used in every sphere of life be it economy, commerce management education. Today the world has shrunk and become a small global village. People are eager to know what is happening and changing the world, and are effected by it. Technology is the main driving force in the globalization, the new advance information technology has made a lot of impact on the economies of the world and changed them drastically in past two decades. Due to globalization we have open economies world wide, countries like China have also opened their gates for trade to the world and they are flourishing. Globalization has helped in promoting international cooperation and peace cases like India and Pakistan. Even the farmer have benefited from globalization-now they have increased yield and are getting better price for their product, in many parts of country like India the cultivators of potato, tomato have collaborated with ketchup, and chips makers. Now Indian farmers have international market for their mangoes, spices flowers, vegetables, fruits tobacco and pappads. This paper tells us how globalization has reduced cost of transport, decreased or abolished the control over capital market, formed free zones for caring out trade due to reducing payment of tariff or no tariff payment in some cases so goods and people can now travel easily to other countries, which has opened and helped in flourishing tourism it has become one of the booming industry. Possibilities of wars have decreased between the countries, communication has developed between the individuals and the corporation. But even after all this happening due to globalization it is a deeply controversial, many argue that globalization is exploiting the poor nations and its people even their markets, it has helped in exploiting the labourers from poor country, deadliest of disease like cancer and HIV is spreading, depleting ozone layer polluting the earth, killing already existence species, uses of drugs etc.
Keywords: Globalization, LPG, Rural Agricultural Marketing, Leadership
Classification-JEL: F63, O17

Citation:   Verma, Raj Kumar . Impact of Globalization in Different Sectors of Commerce in India.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp23-27.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-RKV-4
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-4.pdf
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Title: Financial Distress Prediction: Empirical Evidence From Indian Automobile Companies

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. S. Poornima, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Management, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore
Author 1-Email:  pourni2007@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Theivanayaki M., Research Scholar, Department of Business Management, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore
Author 2-Email:  mdeiva04@gmail.com

Abstract:  Financial distress is of crucial importance in financial management especially in the case of competitive environment. Failure is not an impulsive outcome and it grows constantly in stages. A spontaneous protective effort could be accommodated if the company is anticipated to be proceeding in the direction of potential bankruptcy and this can help alleviate the financial distress to all investor and decrease the costs of bankruptcy. This study extends a failure prediction model for Indian Automobile companies. This study hopes to accommodate some important results relevant to authorities and stake holders. The capability to detect potential financial problems at a premature stage is absolutely essential because it helps to ensure business, financial, economic and political environment stability. The results show good performance with a highly correct categorization factuality rate of more than 90%. Eight ratios were determined significant out of 38 financial ratios utilized in this analysis to discriminate among failed and non- failed companies. The significant variables are Operating margin (%), Gross profit margin (%), Return on long term funds (%), Total debt/equity, Cash earnings retention ratio, Exports as percent of total sales, Import companies in raw material consumed, Bonus component in equity capital (%). 
Keywords: Discriminant Analysis, Ratios, Indian Automobile Companies, Sales
Classification-JEL: L62, G33

Citation:  Poornima, S. and M, Theivanayaki. Financial Distress Prediction: Empirical Evidence From Indian Automobile Companies.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp28-37.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-PS-TM-5
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-5.pdf
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Title: Role and Challenges of SSIs in Changing Business Environment

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Author-Name:  Dr. A. B. Thapliyal, Associate Professor-Commerce, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahithaul, Tehri Garhwal, UK, India.
Author-Email:  thapliyalab@gmail.com

Abstract:  The small scale Industries (SSIs) sector has emerged as a dynamic sector of the Indian economy. This sector is important not only for its contribution to GDP but also for its continuous increase in exports and generating employment. The growth of this sector over the decades after independence is really breathtaking. The SSI sector happens to be at crossroads at present juncture. The new economic conditions have thrown up new challenges in the form of competition and opportunities for scaling new heights. The small industries are now not only have to face competition from Indian companies, but are poised to face stiff competition from multinational companies also. So, in the context of economic reforms and globalization the SSIs must be competitive for their survival and growth . There is an imminent need also to upgrade its technology as per global business environment.
Keywords: SSI, Globalization, Liberalization
Classification-JEL: L60

Citation: Thapliyal, A. B. . Role and Challenges of SSIs in Changing Business Environment.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp38-41.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-ABT-6
DOI: 
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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-6.pdf
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Title: A Study of Attitude of Customer towards Shopping Malls (In Reference to Delhi and NCR)

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. P. K. Jain, Head & Associate Professor, Department of Accounts & Law, Faculty of Commerce, D. S. College, Aligarh
Author 1-Email:  pkjainseema@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name:  M. Danish Khan, Lecturer, ACN College of Engineering and Management Studies, Aligarh
Author 2-Email:  dan.khanmba07@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  Retailing is one of the hottest and booming sector which generating more employment after agriculture sector. Basically retailing is a linking pin who make a bridge in between producer and consumer. In this research paper we study why customer choose shopping mall, attitude of consumer towards shopping mall, how much time spent by male/female as well as what types of problem they faced in malls.After grabbing the metro cities it moves towards the tier –II cities like Surat, Lucknow, Dehradun, Bhopal, Indore, Varanasi etc. This is a positive trend for the marketers to find out the behaviour of individual while shopping in the mall based on his/her demography so, that marketing expert helpful for targets segment them.
Keywords: Shopping Malls, Revenue
Classification-JEL: M14, M30, I30

Citation:  Jain, P. K. and Khan, M. Danish. A Study of Attitude of Customer towards Shopping Malls (In Reference to Delhi and NCR).  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp42-46.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-PKG-MDK-7
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-7.pdf
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Title: Profitability Analysis and Tax Incidence in Cement Companies

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Author-Name:  Aruna Tyagi, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce and Business Administration, M. M. (PG) College, Modinagar
Author-Email:  arunatyagi_85@yahoo.in

Abstract:  In this article, the published accounts of the sample companies for a period of five years have been analyzed through ratio technique. “Ratio discriminating calculated and, wisely interpreted can be useful tool of financial analysis. These are used for high lighting in arithmetical terms, the relationship between figures drawn from financial statements over the period, a few ratios have been standardized for analyzing profitability, turnover, allocation of profits, balance sheet structure and cost structure. The study has adhered to these ratios worked out by R.B.I. for the Industry as a whole in their studies for joint stock companies. Ratio analysis adds depth to the present study. The comparison of ratios for a period of five years, shall be helpful to find trends of profitability. An important variation in the ratios may be due to changes in environment for the industry or due to changes in management policies due to passage of time. A word of caution as regards interpretation of various ratios, will not be out of place here. Some times, there are deviations in ratios from the past or from the norms, generally acceptable. It need not be construed as meaning that the firm or industry is behaving efficiently. The change in the ratios may be the result of some modification or innovation in the accounting policies, which limits the comparison of such ratios. In the present study, various ratios have been calculated, considering different variables. The study has commenced with the profitability analysis of cement Industry. The various terms used in the discussion are defined at appropriate places and bear the same meaning, throughout the study. 
Keywords: Profitability Analysis, Tax Incidence, Cement Companies
Classification-JEL: L61, K23, K34

Citation:  Tyagi, Aruna. Profitability Analysis and Tax Incidence in Cement Companies.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp47-50.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-AT-8
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-8.pdf
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Title: Labour and Employment in Punjab

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Author-Name:  Randeep Kaur, Assistant Professor, Trai Shatabdi GGS Khalsa College, Amritsar (Punjab)
Author-Email:  aujlaboy123@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Productive employment generation with decent work conditions is an important concern not only for the national employment policy but also for the national agenda of inclusive growth .Although the overall economic growth achieved by the Indian economy, particularly during the current decade, has been impressive, employment growth has not kept pace. At a time, when India is aiming to achieve double-digit economic growth, commensurate employment growth assumes crucial importance from the point of view of sustaining overall high growth.
Keywords: Labour, Employment
Classification-JEL: D63, J31, J33, J64

Citation:  Kaur, Randeep. Labour and Employment in Punjab.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp51-56.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-RK-9
DOI: 
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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-9.pdf
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Title: Changing Face of Movie Marketing in India-A Case Study

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. P. K. Agarwal, Director, Dewan Institute of Management Studies, Meerut, UP.
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name:
 Pradeep Kumar, Assistant Professor, IIMT Professional College, Meerut, UP.
Author 2-Email:  prakr2010@gmail.com
Author 3-Name:  Swati Gupta, Assistant Professor, IIMT Professional College, Meerut, UP.
Author 3-Email:  guptaswati3@gmail.com

Abstract:  Gone are the days when plastering a few posters on the walls and hand-painted billboard signs though very attractive were the only means available for a movie’s marketing. Actors barely promoted their movies as is happening today, movie-producers never ventured in front of the camera and our main stream media didn’t care. Today’s Bollywood presents a very different scenario. With over one thousand movies releasing in a year and all of them fighting for a common goal i.e. box-office success. For the success of the movie it has become a imperative necessity for those involved, to do whatever it takes to enforce that “must-watch” feeling among the masses in order to win the hearts of masses & classes and to move through this very competitive rat-race. In this marketing, the Indian media played a vital role. This paper discusses the concept of movie marketing and how the different marketing channels are used to create not just awareness but also increase the saleability of the finished product i.e. the movie. This paper of ours highlights on the questions, What is the formula for successful movies? How do movies manage to keep the cash register moving? What do the audiences want? Though there are no definite answers to these questions, though there are formulas or mavericks which have been reasonably figured out by successful directors in the different eras of moviemaking. 
Keywords: Movie, Marketing, Bollywood, 7Ps
Classification-JEL: M31

Citation:  Agarwal, P. K. and Kumar, Pradeep and Gupta, Swati. Changing Face of Movie Marketing in India-A Case Study.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp57-63.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-PKA-PK-SG-10
DOI: 
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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-10.pdf
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Title: Business Method Patents-International Developments

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Author-Name:  Prashant Agarwal, Advocate, Delhi High Court, Delhi.
Author-Email:  pras_rgnul88@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract:  Business Method may be defined as “a method of operating any aspect of business enterprise”. A business method is classified as a process because it is not a physical object like a mechanical invention or chemical composition. Business Method Patents being usually process patent in nature and the same can be interpreted as new and useful process being patented under this kind of patents. A business method patent confers upon its holder a set of exclusive rights with respect to a particular manner in which a business operation can be carried out. A business method patent confers upon its holder a set of exclusive rights with respect to a particular manner in which a business operation can be carried out. It constitutes a special category of patents which are conferred for operating business in an innovative way. Business method patents are most commonly associated with electronic commerce and other computer related supported infrastructures for carrying business operations. 
Keywords: Business Method Patents, International Developments
Classification-JEL: L69, M11

Citation:  Agarwal, Prashant. Business Method Patents-International Developments.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp64-70.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-PA-11
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-11.pdf
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Title: International Marketing - A Conceptual Framework

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Author-Name:  S. Praveen Kumar, Associate Professor, Panimalar Engineering College, Chennai
Author-Email:  professorpraveen@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  The term ‘internal marketing’ has been widely used in organizations. However, the term is often used loosely to describe many different managerial initiatives aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of organizational resource application. The use of the term ‘marketing’ in this context does not simply mean the application or performance of marketing activity. More specifically, it means a focus on marketing concepts and theories that can be adopted for application to manage the organization of efforts to meet the needs of the internal customer, so that they in turn can understand and value the philosophy of providing satisfaction for the external customer.
Keywords: Forecasting, agricultural economics
Classification-JEL: M31, F29

Citation: Kumar, S. Praveen. International Marketing - A Conceptual Framework.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp71-76.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-SPK-12
DOI: 
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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-12.pdf
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Title: Knowledge Management for the New World of Business

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Author 1-Name:  Neha Jaitly, Assistant Professor, Sunder Deep College of Management Technology, Ghaziabad
Author 1-Email:  nehajaitly1007@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Raj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Sunder Deep College of Management Technology, Ghaziabad
Author 2-Email:  raju8316@gmail.com

Abstract:  The emergence of knowledge-intensive society has changed the nature of business competition. Knowledge management is a critical success factor in today’s enterprises. The efficacy of a knowledge management (KM) project depends heavily on a successful coordination of issues such as corporate culture, organizational processes, HRM and information technology. On a global basis, organizations are recognizing the importance of knowledge as a means to gain or sustain competitive advantage. The only thing that is sustainable, for successful businesses, in the New Millennium – is what it knows, how it uses what it knows, and how fast it can know something new. In the past, the dilemma was finding enough information, but now the problem has shifted to identifying and managing the nuggets of mission-critical knowledge amongst the mountains of meaningless noise. Many organizations are primarily knowledge-focused. They obtain data and information and produce either a product or service. In this production process they use their own, and other’s, knowledge and information. Much of the knowledge in an enterprise is grounded in the minds of employees. Since knowledge is the most basic of all competencies, its recognition, creation, application, and management should be a critical success factor for attainment of a competitive advantage. This paper discusses the need of enterprise to transform themselves into knowledge corporations in order to become competitive in the evolving marketplace. It lays emphasis on developing the knowledge management strategy. It also defines tools, techniques and technology needed to create and enhance organizational knowledge and expertise.
Keywords: Knowledge management, Knowledge Repositories, Web Conferencing
Classification-JEL: M13, M15, O44

Citation: Jaitly, Neha and Kumar, Raj. Knowledge Management for the New World of Business.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp77-81.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-NJ-RK-13
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-13.pdf
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Title: Performance Evaluation of Public and Private Sector Banks in India - A Comparative Study

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http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-14.pdf

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Title: India's Trade Intensity with ASEAN Countries

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Rekha Acharya, Reader, School of Economics, Devi Ahiliya University, Indore, MP
Author 1-Email:  mailforrekha@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Haldhar Sharma, Lecturer, Medi-caps Institute of Techno-Management, Devi Ahiliya University, Indore, MP
Author 2-Email:  haldharsharma@gmail.com

Abstract:  India is a growing economy and ASEAN is a fastest developing trade block. India’s trade relations with ASEAN substantially have been changed after the “Look-East” policy of India in 1991. To strengthen the economic relation with ASEAN; India became full dialogue partner of ASEAN in December 1995 at Bangkok. More recently a Free Trade Agreement in goods was signed between India and ASEAN, in Bangkok on August 13th 2009. In this context, this paper is an attempt to measure the India’s trade intensity indices of export and import with ASEAN. For calculation of these indices few economic variables have been considered such as export, import, world export and world import. Trend analysis and dummy variable have been used to measure the trend and impact of India’s full dialogue partnership with ASEAN. Study indicates that India’s trade is increasing with ASEAN countries, while India’s trade intensity of export and import is not up to the desired level with Philippines and Thailand countries of ASEAN. India’s full dialogue partnership is not able to influence India’s trade intensity of export, while it is significantly affecting India’s trade intensity of import with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand except Philippines.
Keywords: ASEAN, Trade Intensity, Export, Import
Classification-JEL: F44, O53

Citation: Acharya, Rekha and Sharma, Haldhar. India's Trade Intensity with ASEAN Countries.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp90-95.
Paper Code: JCT-A12-RA-HS-15
DOI:
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-15.pdf
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Title: Merger of Bank of Rajasthan (BOR) with ICICI Bank - An Evaluation

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Author-Name:  Dr. S. K. Sharma, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, HNB Garhwal Central University, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand
Author-Email:  drsksharma.in@gmail.com

Abstract:  Indian banks are gradually but surely moving from a cluster of large number of small banks to small number of large banks .To drive however merging banks should keep in views the inherent strengths and weakness of both the entities. Since 1997, ICICI Bank has acquired smaller banks to increase its reach. Recent takeovers include Sangli Bank in 2007, ITC Classic Finance and Anagram Finance in the years 1997 and 1998 respectively. In 2000, the bank merged with the Bank of Madura and in 2005, it acquired Russia’s Ivestitsionno Kreditny Bank. The merger of ICICI Bank and Jaipur-based BOR came into effect from 12 August after the Reserve Bank of India notified it. After the bank received permission for the merger in August 12, 2010, it said that it has successfully integrated the operations of the BOR with the ICICI Bank. The acquisition of Bank of Rajasthan by ICICI bank is the first consolidation of country’s crowded banking sector since 2008. ICICI, the country’s largest private sector lender, is offering the smaller bank’s controlling shareholders 25 shares in ICICI for 118 shares of Bank of Rajasthan. The deal, which will give ICICI a sizeable presence in the northwestern desert state of Rajasthan, values the small bank at about 2.9 times its book value, compared with an Indian banking sector average of 1.84. Post-merger, ICICI Bank’s branch network would go up to 2,463.The present paper is an attempt to throw the light on the merger of BOR with ICICI Bank. It also identifies the objectives of M&As. Some important motives and strategic issues regarding this merger have also been discussed. This paper is based mostly on secondary data. The study gives conclusion and some suggestions too. 
Keywords: Merger & Acquisition, Swap Ratio, Strategy.
Classification-JEL: G21, O10

Citation: Sharma, S. K.. Merger of Bank of Rajasthan (BOR) with ICICI Bank - An Evaluation.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp96-101
Paper Code: JCT-A12-SKS-16
DOI: 
Web Address :
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-16.pdf
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Title: Power for All by 2012 - Bottlenecks and Strategies for Mission

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Author-Name:  Nisha Jain, Research Scholar
Author-Email:  nishafeb@gmail.com

Abstract:  Power is a key factor that contributes to the industrialization and the economic growth of a country. It is one of the most important infrastructures on which the development of various economic sectors of a country depend. Availability of reliable and quality power at affordable rates is very crucial. It helps to make the domestic market competitive globally and thus enhance the quality of life for people. The nuclear, hydro, and thermal energy are the prominent sources of electricity generation in India. In India, the power industry is huge. The Central Ministry of Power is the main authority responsible for the overall development of electrical energy. The ministry is in charge of planning, formulating policies, monitoring and implementing power projects, processing of projects for investment decision, and enacting legislation with regards to power generation, distribution, and transmission. In order to attract foreign investments into the power industry of India, the government has announced several policies and has taken initiatives from time to time. The most important amongst all the policies announced by the government is the enactment of the Electricity Act. The act was enacted in 2003. The act mainly aims to solidify the existing laws relating to the generation, distribution, transmission, and trading of electricity, promote healthy competition among companies in the power sector; and ensure that there is a supply of electricity to every nook and corner of the country. The Electricity Act also aims to rationalize electricity charges, promote efficient and environmentally favorable policies. Moreover, the Central Ministry of Power has set an ambitious plan of “power for all by 2012”. While the power sector in India has witnessed a few success stories in the last 4-5 years, the road that lies ahead of us is dotted with innumerable challenges that result from the gaps that exist between what’s planned versus what the power sector has been able to deliver. This document highlights and quantifies some of these gaps and attempts to analyze the problem. 
Keywords: Power Sector, Reliable Power, Bottlenecks, Generation of Power, Reforms.
Classification-JEL: Y80, I0

Citation: Jain, Nisha. Power for All by 2012 - Bottlenecks and Strategies for Mission.  Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2012, 7: 1. Pp102-109
Paper Code: JCT-A12-NJ-17
DOI: 
Web Address:
http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2012-v7i1-17.pdf
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