Volume 10 Number 1: April, 2015

Title: Assessing the Role of TRIPS Agreement for Inaccessibility and Un-affordability of Essential Medicines in Nigeria

Description: 

Author-Name:  Umar Abubakar Dubagari, Department of Public Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto – Nigeria.

Author-Email:  dubagari@gmail.com

Abstract:  Intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection was not recognised in Nigeria and essential medicines were accessible and affordable to all but reverse is the case with the implementation of TRIPS agreement on IPRs. This resulted in inordinate policy formulation and implementation that exacerbates the public health care despite Nigeria’s endowment with enormous human and natural resources. This paper argues that patents protection hinders access and affordability to essential medicines in Nigeria. It also argues that pharmaceutical companies prevent developing countries from utilising the TRIPS flexibilities to access essential medicines for their citizens. It concludes that access and affordability to essential medicines are additional challenges to Nigeria. The paper is based on the anti-corporate globalisation movement theory. The theory advocates for a world structured by human values other than greed and domination, one less dominated by the culture and values of global capital. The economic, political, and cultural interconnectedness signified by globalisation is irreversible and possibly a good thing, this interconnection, could potentially serve the interests of people and the earth, not just the elites. Although the rich and powerful have shaped globalisation in their interest, the anti-globalisation theory is a counter-movement that seeks to reshape the interconnected world in the interests of people and the planet. 

Keywords: Anti-Globalisation, Pharmaceutical Corporations, Patent, Essential Drugs, Nigeria.

Classification-JEL: I14, I18, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 7-19

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-1.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Social Norms and Reward System Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. H. C. Kothari, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Shriram Institute of Management and Technology, Kashipur, U. S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India.

Author-Email:  hckothari@yahoo.com

Abstract:  This study is an attempt to identify social norms that affects the entrepreneurial intention in the entrepreneurially deficient state uttarakhand. The empirical study is based on a sample of 880 graduation final year students studying in different colleges of uttarakhand. On the basis of literature review and focus group interviews a questionnaire was prepared and administered on the sample. Pearsion’s chi-square test was used to find out statistical relationship between the respondents with and without entrepreneurial intention and their perception for social norms and student’s t-test was used to compare mean score and significance of the results. Only two variables which are stated as, “maximum people want to do salaried job in our society” and “more often a person who is unable to get job, starts his/her business in our society” were found statistically significant. T-test also supports this finding. Only one variable which is asked as, “more often a person who is unable to get job, starts his/her business in our society” was found statistically significant. The mean value of the response for this item is also high for the respondents with non-entrepreneurial career choice than the respondents with entrepreneurial career choice. The findings of t-test used to examine the relationship between overall score of the social norms and career choice of the respondents, are also non significant. 

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial intention, Social Norms, Chi-Square test, t-test.

Classification-JEL: L0, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 20-25

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-2.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: A Study on the Development of Agriculture and Changing Cropping Pattern

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Khalid Anwar, Reader, Department of Economics, J.V. Jain College, Saharanpur

Author-Email:  vardah.ilma@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. Shagufta Hussain, Research Scholar

Author-Email:  vardah.ilma@gmail.com

Abstract:  In studying the various facets of agriculture, the first and the foremost thing to know about is regarding the pattern crops, the production of various crops, and the productivity of land and the inputs in respect of these crops. A recent development of considerable importance is the emergence of foodgrains surpluses. A variety of crops are grown in India. The single most important element in crop production strategy in the post-green revolution period is improved agricultural technology. This technology is in the form of high yielding plant varieties, intensive cultivation, greater use of fertilizers, increased irrigation and better tecniques for ploughing, harvesting and plant protection. High yielding varieties have been developed for a number of crops but their impact on production, productivity and costs varies across crops and regions. The success of the state water policy will depend entirely on the development and maintenance of general consensus and commitments to its underlying principles and objectives.

Keywords: Agricultual Yield, Rainfall, Irrigation, Cropping pattern, Agricultural Productivity, Kharif, Rabi, Mixed Cropping

Classification-JEL: Q12, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 26-35

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-3.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Make in India by Reviving Investment, Manufacturing and Job Creation

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Vikas Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Govt. Raja (P.G.) College, Rampur

Author-Email:  dr_vikaskumar@yahoo.in

Abstract:  The economic policy of the government in its first year has been focused on reforms, infrastructure, ease of doing business to revive investment, for manufacturing sector growth for job creation. Though it’s to early to measure outcomes of these policies, the future of Indian economy certainly looks bright. The launch of eBiz portal for businesses is one of the technology enabled e-governance efforts. The eBiz portal is a single-window system on the web for firms to navigate the documentation-related formalities of setting and managing a business in India. As of now, eleven services can be availed online in G2B eBiz portal. The government aims to integrate 26 central government services across nine departments on the platform. The government has rightly identified the problem and focused on the manufacturing sector on a mission mode. The government’s ‘Make in India’ scheme basically announces to the world that India is better place to invest in than before, that the government is doing what it can to ease the rules and simplify procedures, while investing in physical infrastructure. The huge increase in untied resources would give states the fiscal space to design their own developmental schemes and programs according to their specific circumstances. However, there is also apprehension about the use of money by the States as the quality and capacity of state administration varies widely and therefore, the increased untied fiscal transfers along with reduction in tied developmental plan schemes may lead to misuse of money. 

Keywords: Investment, Manufactureing, Inflation, Cooperative fedralism, Make in India.

Classification-JEL: L60, O15, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 36-40

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-4.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Crunch Time : When Leadership Matters Most

Description: 

Author-Name:  Michael D. Cook, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix AZ, USA

Author-Email:  mike.cook@tn.gov

Author-Name:  M. Kenneth Holt, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville TN, US
Author-Email:  holtm@apsu.edu

Abstract:  Leadership has been the focus of many academic papers and research studies. While there have been countless studies covering leadership style, traits of successful leaders, and theories of leadership, less attention has been paid to specific times or situations which call for more leadership than others. This paper will address three situations in which leadership tends to matter the most: crisis, change, and uncertainty. Specifically, this paper will focus on reasons why leadership is most critical at these times, traits and characteristics of leaders who are most successful in such situations, and unique opportunities that exemplary leadership can uncover during such times. The remainder of this paper will discuss these situations in detail, explaining why each circumstance demands high quality leadership, as well as the specific traits and characteristics that leaders must possess in order to best serve their constituents during these times.

Keywords: Crunch Time, Leadership, Organisation, Uncertainty.

Classification-JEL: M50, Z0 

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 41-47

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-5.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Financial Support System towards Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Shailesh Gupta, Professor, IIMT Group of Colleges, Meerut.

Author-Email:  shaileshvt@yahoo.co.in

Author-Name:  Anurag Mathur, Assistant Professor, Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Management College, Meerut.

Author-Email:  mat.anurag@gmail.com

Abstract:  Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) play a important role in the industrial development of the country. These enterprises contribute to the country’s GDP and are a major part of country’s industrial production, exports, etc. These firms help in generating employment across the country and also restrict concentration of wealth in few hands . These enterprises construct an entrepreneurial substratum in the economy by developing and nurturing the talents, skills, etc. and helps out in the reduction of poverty. Due to high labour intensity, this sector has been provided a priority status by both the Central and the State Governments. The MSME sector in India is heterogeneous in nature, widely dispersed and mostly unorganised. It includes various types of production units ranging from khadi, coir & crafts to technologically viable industries. The MSME’s faced various challenges related to finance, operations, marketing, infrastructural, technological and legal. Various measures are taken by Government for the upliftment of MSME’s. Traditionally private funds from family & friends are single and largest source of finance but for the exploitation of MSME’s full potential there is a requirement of private equity. Support of entrepreneurs and Government is highly required for the development of Indian Economy. For this purpose Government has launched several supportive schemes such as Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE), Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS), Under Single Window Scheme financial requirements of MSME’s can be satisfied through single agency. 

Keywords: MSME, EDP, MSMED, Private Equity, MSME financing, Support Schemes, Single Window Scheme, Credit Guarantee Fund Trust

Classification-JEL: G20, G21, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 48-55

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-6.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Technical Efficiency of Public Sector Banks in India : An Empirical Study

Description: 

Author-Name:  Nitashree Barman, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Assam University (A Central University), Silchar, India

Author-Email:  nbnitashree@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. Kingshuk Adhikari, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Assam University (A Central University), Silchar, India

Author-Email:  adhikari_lecturer@rediffmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. Nikhil Bhusan Dey, Professor, Department of Commerce, Assam University (A Central University), Silchar, India

Author-Email:  nikhil.b.dey@gmail.com

Abstract:  The purpose of the present paper is to analyse the performance of public sector banks in India for the period 2002-03 to 2011-12 with the help of non-parametric frontier approach. The technical efficiency of twenty five (25) public sector banks has been computed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model and the same has been further decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The study reveals that on an average, technical efficiency score of the banks has turned out to be 0.963 and majority of the banks have obtained efficiency score within the range of (0.982-0.999). The empirical findings of the study conclude that performance of the public sector banks in respect of optimum utilization of inputs for producing the given level of output has improved over the period. However, the major source of technical inefficiency of public sector banks in India is found to be managerial inabilities in converting inputs into outputs optimally rather than inappropriate size of operation. 

Keywords: MSME, EDP, MSMED, Private Equity, MSME financing, Support Schemes, Single Window Scheme, Credit Guarantee Fund Trust

Classification-JEL: G21, G24, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 56-65

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-7.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Women in Unorganised Sector - A Case Study of Maid Servants in Ghaziabad City

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Pawan Kumar, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, M. M. H. College, Ghaziabad

Author-Email:  nbnitashree@gmail.com

Abstract:  The socioeconomic transformation of Indian society in the present century and especially in the post-indipandence period in the form of industrialization, urbanization, westernization, spread of education and enhanced employment opportunities for women has brought about a series of perceptible changes in the status, outlook, worldview and attitude of Indian women, specially educated middle class women. Now, more and more woman have been coming out of the four walls of their homes in search of gainful employment which is evident from the slow but steadily rising Female Work Participation Rate (WRP) during the last three censuses. According to 1991 census female WRP for urban areas was 7.18 which rose to 8.31 in 2001 and finally to 9.91 in 2011. Maid servants as part of the unorganized labour are today victims of unmitigated hardships and indignities. They are paid shockingly low wages. There is no minimum wages fixed as the Minimum Wages Act does not cover the domestic workers. They do not have any job protection or security as they are hired and fired at the will and fancies of the employers. For even trivial reasons the maid servants can loose her their job if the employers desire so. In the absence of any suitable legal measures to protect the interests of domestic/maid servants their plight remains unchanged and they are victims of exploitation. Millions of words have already been spent touching upon the various problems of women working in organized field but a very few studies on the women working in unorganized sector and still fewer on maid servants. The present paper aims to take up the task of exploring this new class of women workers, especially their working and living conditions. 

Keywords: Patriarchial Society, Socio-economic, Urbanisation, Industrialisation, Work Participation Rate, Unorganised Sector.

Classification-JEL: J44, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 66-73

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-8.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Impact of Family Sentiments on Indian Woman and Their Buying Behaviour

Description: 

Author-Name:  Ramesh Babu Kakumanu, Reserarch Scholar, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana

Author-Email:  rameshassociatemarketing@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. V. Israel Raju, Professor, K. C. Reddy PG College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh

Author-Email:  rameshassociatemarketing@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Dr. A. Kishore Kumar, Principal, Siddhartha Institute of Computer Sciences, Ibrahimpathnam, R R Dist, Hyderabad

Author-Email:  rameshassociatemarketing@gmail.com

Abstract:  A woman basically is an emotional creature and woman without emotions is like cake without cream. They undergo all types of emotions like joy, fear, anger, humor, sex, empathy and love. Family sentiments are most powerful tools to push woman into emotional state of mind. Family sentiments in the form of relationships, sharing love, caring, security, warmth, sex, and living together are frequently used in the advertisements. This article studies family appeals impact on Indian woman. The age based factors are analyzed. Possible relations, associations and deviations of age factors with respect to family appeals impacting on Indian women are tested. The sample size is 753.

Keywords: Family and Relations Appeal, Advertisements, Indian Women, Age, Impact

Classification-JEL: M31, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 74-85

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-9.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Impact of Promotional Activities, After Sale Services, Mileage and Resale Value on the Purchase Decision - A Consumer Behaviour Study in Automobile Industry

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Assistant Professor in Commerce, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi, India.

Author-Email:  rakeshkumardocgtor@yahoo.in

Abstract:   In this research paper an attempt has been made to know the Impact of Promotional Activities, After Sale Services, Mileage and Resale Value on the Purchase Decision. The research will help the manufacturers of four wheelers intaking suitable decisions regarding Promotional Activities, After Sale Services, Mileage and Resale Value.It will further help the manufacturesto make necessary changes in theirPromotional Activities, After Sale Services, Mileage and Resale Value. The study was carried out in Himachal Pradesh state. The researcher has used both primary and secondary data for this research. The researcher has collected primary data from the owners of four wheeler. Consumer behaviour is the process whereby, individuals decide whether, what, when, where, how, and from whom to purchase goods and services. The automobile industry today is the most lucrative industry. Due to the increase in disposable income in both rural and urban sector and easy finance being provided by all the financial institutes, the passenger car sales have been significantly increased.

Keywords: Consumer Behaviour,Promotional Activities, After Sale Services, Mileage and Resale Value.

Classification-JEL: M31, R00, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 86-95

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-10.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Gandhi’s Eco-Ethical Philosophy-Relevance for New Globalised Era of 21st Century

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Kavita Saxena, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, D. N. College, Meerut

Author-Email:  ks96735@gmail.com

Abstract:   Gandhi was not conventional economist like Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, and J.M. Keynes etc. In his easy hind Swaraj, Young India, Harijan and Indian opinion, he made references to the kind of economic system, which was considered as ideal for India. His ideas of economic are a part and parcel on his philosophical, political and sociological ideas. Gandhiji was essentially concerned with the free growth of human beings. Emancipation of the downtrodden and exploited masses, Mahatma Gandhi‘s economic ideas are based mainly on four principles of life - Truth, Simplicity, Non violence and Dignity of labour. Gandhi ji was intellectually influenced by the above mentioned situations prevailing at that time. He has taken economics at par ethics in his life. This paper has argued that despite profound economic and social changes that have taken place since Gandhi‘s lifetime, his economic ideas continue to be relevant today. The need for a re-orientation of economic ideology is keenly felt today. The failure of market-fundamentalism has revealed very starkly the necessity of re-establishing an ethically grounded ideology for both business and for policy. Gandhi’s economic thought was deeply rooted in ethics. Gandhi had developed an integrative ethos that helped Indians unite purposefully to dislodge colonial rule. He had also discovered a powerful method for non- violent contestation of opposing ideas. We have discussed the essential principles of his approach, which was based on a goal of freedom that transcended material gratification and individualism, and upheld the principle of collective well-being as a desirable motivation for economic activity. These principles can contribute towards mainstreaming ethical and responsible corporate behaviour, as well as that of consumers. Gandhi’s ideas and methods of non-violent persuasion can also help in transforming economic and social attitudes towards a culture that can bring about inclusive patterns of growth, and help in curbing environmental damage.

Keywords: Economic, Ethics, Philosophy, Swaraj, Harijan, Trust, Social Justice, Self Respect, Self sufficiency

Classification-JEL: R00, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 96-101

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-11.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: Change in Scenario of Foreign Investment in India (From 20th to 21st Century)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Shyam Kumar Ghai, Department of Commerce, N. A. S. College, Meerut

Author-Email:  dr.shyamghai@gmail.comAbstract:   The broad thrust of the new policies is not very different from the changes being implemented in other developing countries and also all over the erstwhile socialist world. They aim at reducing the extent of Government controls over various aspects of the domestic economy, increasing the role of the private sector, redirecting scarce public sector resources to areas where the private sector is unlikely to enter, and opening up the economy to trade and foreign investment. So far as other modes of investment in India are concerned, these are equally imperative in order to understand various strategies / steps taken towards path of success achievement by India. Thus, the knowledge of these other important aspects, especially various rules & regulations framed along with FDI, becomes imperative in order to get better picture of economic reforms. Ultimately, the combined efforts of DI & PI produced an increasing trend of Rs. 14,808 crore per annum. After initial negative results for five years, it is expected to touch Rs. 436,458 crore by 2024-25, which is a good sign. Thus, the present paper depicts that the World is looking towards India inspite of all ups and downs (the second largest populated country) as secure and fruitful investment avenue. Things would definitely take better shape, if potholes in the path of progress are timely taken care of.

Keywords: Economic Policies, foreign investment, Economic Reforms, Financial Stability, Flow of Foreign Investment

 

Classification-JEL: F65, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 102-113

File-URL: hhttp://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-12.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download

Title: A Study on Factors that Affect School Enrolment and Dropout Rates

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Megha Verma, PDF-ICSSR, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D. N. College, Meerut

Author-Email:  

Author-Name:  Chhavi Yadav, Research Scholar, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D. N. College, Meerut

Author-Email:  

Abstract:   Education is an affective instrument for social and economic development of society. Education is an affective instrument for social and economic development and national integration. It contributes not only for the development of human resources and efficacy. The main reason for this study, One is educational attainment among Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribes in comparatively lower than the general population. The wide gap in educational attainment between the SCs/ STs and the rest of the population is due to the long history of their socio economics explosion and low social and physical and some local factors. Basically the extreme poverty is most Dalit familiars live in underlying reason why dropout rate of Dalit children is so high. Status rate means the proportion of all individuals in the population who have not completed high school and were not enrolled at student has been dropped in VI to X class.

Keywords: Schoole Enrolment, Dropout Rates, SC, ST, Muslims, Group Dropout, Primary Stage

Classification-JEL: I26, Z0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 10 Number 1. April, 2015. Pages: 114-121

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2015-v10i1-13.pdf

Article Views  :  

Download





INNER