Volume 11 Number 1: April, 2016

Title: A Review of Pre-Keynesian Neoclassical Business Cycle Theory

Description: 

Author-Name:  Christopher K. Manner, Ph. D., Union University, Jackson TN, USA

Email: cmanner@uu.edu

Abstract: Although some practicing economists believe there was no macroeconomics before Keynes, historians of economic thought recognize a rich and varied stream of literature on monetary and business cycle theory that predate and form the context for Keynes’s General Theory. Accordingly, the present paper examines many of the popular Neoclassicalbusiness cycle theories developed prior to the Keynesian Revolution. There are several valuable classifications of these theories; however, it is common to sort the writings on business cycles according to the cause attributed. In particular, this paper will follow an early twentieth century convention, using the terms “originating cause” and “self-generating cycle” to describe the various business cycle theories.Originating causes, such as war and weather, keep the business system in a continual state of unbalance. The business responses to those originating causes create a self-generating cycle of recurrent upward and downward movements in economic activity. This paper should prove useful to teachers (and students) of macroeconomics who wish to complement their technical material with a historical perspective.

Keywords: Business Cycle Theory, Neoclassical School, Originating Cause, and Self-Generating Cycle.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 7-15

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-1.pdf

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Title: Bilateral Trade of India with Middle East Countries : A Study of Iran

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Author-Name:  Anuj Gupta, Research Scholar (JRF), Faculty of Commerce, Banaras Hindu University.

Email: anujwhbhu@gmail.com

Author-Name:  Ravi Kumar, Research Scholar (SRF), Faculty of Commerce, Banaras Hindu University.

Email: anujwhbhu@gmail.com

Abstract: From the recent past, it has been seen that the structure of international trade is made simple & smoothening. India is having a good political, cultural & economic relationship with Iran. Iranian oil is very popular in India while the cereals & other food materials are popular in Iran. The need of present hour is to build stronger trade relation with Middle East nations, among them Iran is an important country. From the study it has been found that the trade balance is negative for India in the recent past. The share of total export to Iran is also very low. Hence, policies should be made to encourage this trade between the two nations. Oil is the chief commodity imported due to its natural superiority. An alternative use for oil must be developed to decrease the use of oil in the nation. Better export of arts & artifacts must be done to improve the quantity of export from India. Political relation must be made stronger to enhance the trading between the nations. Providing better environment to the exporters through subsidies, financial & technical assistance, etc. to enhance the total growth of export will be a better option.

Keywords: smoothening, Iranian oil, trade relation, Middle East, better environment.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 16-27.

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-2.pdf

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Title: Implementation of Goods and Service Tax (GST) in India and its Control over the Tax Collection

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Author-Name:  Pranesh Debnath, Assistant Registrar (Finance), Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar, Pin-799022

Email: praneshdebnath@gmail.com

Abstract: Goods and Service Tax (GST) is a destination base indirect tax collected by central as well as state government to meet the public expenditure as a part of important mechanism of fiscal system of a nation. Unlike other prevailing indirect taxes Goods and Services Tax and is proposed to be a comprehensive indirect tax levy on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods as well as services with a input tax credit facility on output tax liability at the national and state level in an uniform modus. In this study an attempt has been made to draw the road map in connection with levy and collection of GST and its sharing between centre and state. Hence, GST is expected to unite the country economically as it will subsume various forms of taxes that are currently levied at different points subsuming the multiple types of taxes charged at different rate at present.
 

Keywords: GST, IGST, SGST, CGST, Indirect Tax Structure.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 28-35.

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-3.pdf

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Title: Linkage Between Human Resource Management and Firm Performance

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Author-Name:  Avinash Singh, M. Com., UGC NET Student, Manuri, Allahabad

Email: avi.monu111@gmail.com

Abstract: The impact of human resource management (HRM) policies and practices on firm performance is an important topic in the field of human resource management. In theoretical literature and the emerging conventional wisdom among human resource professionals there is a growing consensus that organizational human resource policies can, if properly configured, provide a direct and economically significant contribution to firm performance. A critical reading of the academic literature shows that the relationship between human resource management and firm effectiveness is a phenomenon with major implications on organizational performance. Objective of this research is to determine key determinants of formal human resource planning that contributes towards performance in the Private Banking Sector. The data collected from 25 offices including head offices from Allahabad District of U.P. Results from the factor analysis on HRP measures selection, training, and incentives and the organizational performance measures which arejob satisfaction, efficiency, employee motivation and technology constitutes significant and a positive relationship with other. As modern HR practices are implemented in telecom sector and companies would spend more on Human Resources, it would lead towards High performance achievement. This paper comprehensively studies the links between human resource management practice and firm performance and highlights the points how HRM practices can improve the organizational performance.


Keywords: Human Resource Planning, Teecom Sector, Organizational Performance, Selectyion, Training and Incentives.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 36-44

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-4.pdf

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Title: Social Media Marketing : Opportunities and Challenges

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Author-Name:  Dr. Kulwant Singh Rana, Professor in Commerce and Management Studies, H. P. University, Shimla - 5

Email: drkulwant_singh@yahoo.co.in

Author-Name:  Anil Kumar, Assistant Professor in Commerce, Shyamlal College (Eve.), University of Delhi

Email: anilverma2005@gmail.com

Abstract: Consumer is the basic foundation of every business. What consumer seeks, thinks, prefers and buys is of great importance to marketers to know and study the buying behavior of people. Every person has their own taste and preferences. It is influenced by many factors. Traditionally buyers concentrate on different aspects of products like quality, price and brand preferences, but now in present time many consumers relied also on social recommendations while making purchase decision. Many consumers are using blogs/ face book reviews and ratings as mean to seek recommendation. Peer advice and find product / service information. So social media is serving as an all-purpose medium to engage with consumers at all stages of the consumer decision journey. India is in transition stage we are moving from traditional marketing tools like, TV, radio, magazine etc. to modern marketing tools i e. Social media tools face book, corporate blogs, video channels, banners as on social nets. The trend of online marketing is increasing all over the world as well as in India also. Main focus of the proposed study is to provide an understanding to the concept social media marketing and to find out the challenges and opportunities for social media marketing in India.


Keywords: Concept of Social Media, Online Marketing, Challenges and Opportunities.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 45-49.

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-5.pdf

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Title: A Conceptual Perspective on Brand Switching Behaviour of Consumers in Telecommunication Industry

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Author-Name:  Md. Shahnawaz Abdin, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
Author-Email:  msabdin76@gmail.com
Author-Name:  Dr. N. H. Mullick, Associate Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Management, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
Author-Email:  drnhmullick@gmail.com

Abstract: The best thing to happen to mankind was the mobile phone. India has emerged as the fastest growing mobile phone market in the world. Mobile phone was thought of as a magical gadget in the past. It is a reality now. With the advent of advanced technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL and 3G technology and growing number of service providers, the competition has increased many folds. Every day, companies belonging to both the public sectoras well as the private sector are putting in their resources and efforts to improve their services so as to give maximum benefit to their customers. Hyper competition in the telecommunication industry, availability of number of subscriber options for consumers, diverse tariff rates offered by each player influence consumers to switch their services providers. This paper focuses on enlisting factors influencing consumer switching behaviour in telecommunication industry. However, one thing is certain. By providing value added services and effective pricing strategies; telecom service providers can influence and control to a large extent the consumer brand switching behaviour and can retain customers. 

Keywords: Telecommunication Industry, Brand Switching, Buyer Behaviour, Technology and Competition.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 50-58.

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-6.pdf

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Title: An Analysis of NPAs Management in PSBs, PVTSBs and FBs

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Author-Name:  Parasuraman Subramani, Research Scholar, Research Department of Commerce, Sri Vijay Vidalaya College of Arts and Science, Dharmapuri, Periyar University, Tamilnadu.

Author-Email:  pras_rgnul88@yahoo.co.uk

Author-Name:  Dr. N. Sathiya, Assistant Professor, Research Department of Commerce, Sri Vijay Vidalaya College of Arts and Science, Dharmapuri, Periyar University, Tamilnadu.

Author-Email:  sathiyasamrutha@gmail.com

Abstract: Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) are one of the biggest challenges facing the global banking system, and particularly Indian banks. Some years before these banks were in flourishing heights, but health of these banks deteriorated because of NPAs. Many Indian banks have been controlled their NPAs up to a level, but some banks still have been failed to control their NPAs. As a result, NPAs hitting the profitability, liquidity and solvency, in addition to posing threat on quality of asset and survival of these banks. It involves the necessity of provisions, which reduces the overall profits and shareholders’ value. The problem of NPAs is not only affecting the banks but also the whole economy. In fact high level of NPAs in Indian banks is nothing but a reflection of the state of health of the industry and trade. It is essential to trim down NPAs to improve the financial health in the banking system. In the background of these developments, this study strives to examine the state of affair of the NPAs of the Public Sector Banks (PSBs), Private Sector Banks (PVTSBs) and Foreign Banks (FBs) in India. The study is based on the secondary data retrieved from “Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India”. This paper analyses the position of NPAs in PSBs, PVTSBs and FBs for the period of 2009-10 to 2014-15. 

Keywords: Non-Performing Assets, Profitability, Liquidity, Public Sector Banks, Private Sector Banks and Foreign Banks.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 59-76.

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-7.pdf

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Title: Foreign Direct Investment in Defence Sector in India : Problems and Prospects

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Author-Name:  Dr. Dinesh Mahajan, Assistant Professor in Commerce, School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India.

Author-Email:  ddin_1991@rediffmail.com

Abstract: India is surrounded by hostile neighbourers. The need for defence of its borders has been on priority since independence. For this purpose defence production has to be upgraded to make it at par with the military power of other countries. A humble attempt has been made to exhibit the trends of FDI inflows in the defence sector and to examine the problems of FDI inflows in this sector in India. The prospects for FDI inflows in defence sector have also been highlighted. The time period covered herein ranges from 2001 to 2015 (upto September). The study reveals that FDI inflows in this sector have fluctuated from Rs. 2.36 millions in the year 2000-2005 to Rs. 4.80 millions in the year 2015 (upto September). The major problems in FDI inflows in this sector are the perception of viability, selection of private partner, insufficient FDI limit, safety of intellectual property rights, technology, availability of finance and quality of work force. The prospects for FDI in this sector are joint ventures, likely manufacturing hub, fighter aircrafts and helicopters, cost-effective manpower, government policy of reducing imports, increase in defence expenditure and submarines and naval vessels.

Keywords: Defence, Foreign Direct Investment, Trends, Problems, Prospects.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 77-84

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-8.pdf

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Title: A Study of Health Insurance Business in India

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Author-Name:  Dr. Trilochan Sharma, Senior Lecturer, Institute of Business Studies, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut.

Author-Email:  drlochan@gmail.com

Abstract: It was 1884 when the health insurance came into existence in Germany. Initially it started for sickness and accidental insurance. After First World War it was adopted by Great Britain, France and Soviet Union. Briton was the first country in the world that made the health insurance compulsory for their citizens. This facility was providing at a nominal cost. There was no any specific service and rules for health insurance in India before 194. The insurance act 1912 and 1938 was not provided any specific rule and guidance for health insurance as both was focused on life insurance. The state insurance scheme started in India in 1948. The central government of India started a health insurance scheme from 1954. More than 80 percent population of India is uncovered from health insurance still today. The government of India deregulates the insurance business from the year 1999. IRDA act came into existence; it gave a new direction to the insurance industry in India. Presently 22 companies are working in health insurance sector 19 in private sector and three others in government sector Maharashtra is the best state in health care coverage.

Keywords: Schemes, Health, Insurance, Private, Public and performance.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 85-90

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-9.pdf

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Title: A Study of E-Commerce and Online Shopping

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Author-Name:  Rashmi Vashishtha, Reserarch Scholar, Mewar University, Gangrar, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan.

Author-Email:  

Author-Name: Dr. Sudhir Kumar, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut.

Author-Email:  

Abstract: E-commerce and online shopping in India is getting a noticeable growth as more usage of internet facilities, high educational standards, changing life style and economical growth of the country reasons in the demand of ecommerce techniques and tools. Versatile shopping experience and rapid development of transaction facilities is further boosting opportunities for the remaining market segments. The biggest advantage of e-commerce is the ability to provide secure shopping transactions via the internet and coupled with almost instant verification and validation of credit card transactions. One of the most important issues to be addressed in electronic commerce is the area of services. The primary purpose of this study is to examine and uncover the impact of e-commerce and also identify the issues and areas important to the implementation of e-commerce that may help in enhancing the productivity in the economic growth of the country.

Keywords: E-commerce, online shopping, internet facilities.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 91-96

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-10.pdf

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Title: Analysis of Relationship among Critical Factors in the Construction Projects

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Author-Name:  Dr. Seema Sharma, Lecturer, Department of Commerce, N.A.S. (PG) College, Meerut

Author-Email:  

Abstract: The critical factors are considered to be a mean for improving the effectiveness of project. Performance can be assured by identifying and eliminating the factors that cause poor project outcomes. Thus, project managers need better understanding of critical success/failure factors and how to measure them. The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the causes of project failure and how these can be prevented, managed, or controlled. Constructions projects are frequently influenced by success factors’ which can help project parties reach their intended goals with greater efficiency. The aim of this paper is to investigate the critical factors leading to construction company success. Many critical success factors such as factors related to project manager’s performance, factors related to organization, factors related to project, factors related to external environment became apparent from this study.

Keywords: Critical Factors; Project Management.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 97-100

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-11.pdf

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Title: Employee Engagement, Training and Career Development (Tata Tele Services Limited – A Case Study)

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Author-Name:  Shikha Vashishtha, Research Scholar, Mewar University, Gangrar, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan.

Author-Email:  

Abstract: Employee engagement is generally the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards his or her organization and its core values and beliefs. An engaged employee is presumed to be aware of business context, and work dynamics with colleagues and peer groups to improve performance within the job for the benefit and excellence of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. The paper focuses on how employee engagement is an antecedent of job involvement and what should a company do to make the employees engaged. The scope of the study is limited to one organisation i.e. Tata Tele Services which is one of the major players in the Indian services sector. The paper attempts to do an analysis of employee engagement strategies adopted by the organisation on the basis of the widely accepted Ten Cs Model of Employee Engagement.

Keywords: Job Involvement, Employee Engagement, Career, Progression Policy.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 101-108

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-12.pdf

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Title: A Study of Buying Behaviour of Customers Towards Branded and Non-Branded Gold Jewellery with Reference to Meerut City

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Author-Name:  Dr. Kavita Saxena, Associate Professor, Economics Department, D.N. (PG) College, Meerut

Author-Email:  ks96735@gmail.com

Abstract: History of Indian jewellery is as old as the history of the country itself. Around 5000 years ago, the desire to adorn themselves aroused in people, leading to the origin of jewellery. Since then, Indian women and jewellery have gone in hand in hand. There cannot be a women in India, who does not adore herself with minimum jewellery. In fact, jewellery is considered as security and prestige of women in the country. The attraction for jewellery has been great in India that it is no more a craft than an art. In India, gold jewellery is a store of value, a symbol of wealth and status and a fundamental part of the many rituals. In the country’s rural population, a deep affinity for gold goes hand in hand with practical consideration of the portability and security of jewellery as an investment.

Keywords: Jewellery, women, security, Investment.

Classification-JEL: A0, T18, C0

Journal of Commerce and Trade. Volume 11 Number 1. April, 2016. Pages: 109-114

File-URL: http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2016-v11i1-13.pdf

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